Researchers develop new methods for studying evolution of cancer treatment resistance

first_img Source:https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/news/media/releases/computer_algorithm_maps_cancer_resistance_to_drugs_therapy Jul 3 2018New methods of studying the evolution of treatment resistance in head and neck cancer are being developed by researchers at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center.The scientists wanted to examine how cancers acquire resistance to treatment over time and whether those changes could be modeled computationally to determine patient-specific timelines of resistance.The research was published by Genome Medicine on May 23, 2018.The Coordinate Gene Activity in Pattern Sets algorithm (CoGAPS) was used to determine the molecular changes associated with resistance during the course of the development of the resistance. It required developing new methods of collecting data from in vitro cell models and developing a computational analysis approach to measure these observations that has not previously been done for cancer.Related StoriesNew protein target for deadly ovarian cancerTrends in colonoscopy rates not aligned with increase in early onset colorectal cancerBacteria in the birth canal linked to lower risk of ovarian cancer”The biggest novelty in this paper is considering time as a variable. We have to prove that it matters before putting that burden on patients,” said senior author Elana Fertig, Ph.D. “But we think it will result in better treatment.”The study examined cetuximab treatment effects on cancer cells from head and neck squamous cell carcinoma over 11 weeks. During that time, they used the same pool of cells to see what happened during the time period, attempting to avoid any outside variables from using different batches of cells.CoGAPS was used to quantify the evolving changes during treatment. The resulting data showed how the changes occurred over time and when those changes resulted in immediate therapeutic response or resistance. Having that information could lead to combined or alternative therapies to combat the resistance.Most model systems were developed to sync to existing data, comparing pre- and post-treatment,” said co-lead author Genevieve Stein-O’Brien, Ph.D. “To take this algorithm and find out how the resistance was acquired, we needed to know what was going on in between (the pre- and post-treatment) during the full time course.”Although a wide variety of molecular alterations conferring resistance to the treatment have been discovered, the mechanisms and timing of their evolution are still poorly understood. With the CoGAPS algorithm combining experimental biology and computer programming, the scientists hope to give doctors and patients better information about how the disease is progressing during treatment.Co-lead author Luciane Kagohara, Ph.D., said CoGAPS is a departure from standard approaches but allows them to go deeper and study therapeutic resistance and the fundamental pathways in an individual.”If we can map that, it will really pave the way to predict when resistance is going to occur and what drugs can be used to combat that resistance,” she said.The scientists believe the computational approach to studying cancer cells over time with targeted therapies could be used for other types of cancers and other drug therapies.last_img read more

3D Printing Technology and Personalized Medicine

first_imgSponsored Content by Thermo Fisher Scientific – Materials & Structural AnalysisJul 6 2018 An interview with Dr. Serajuddin, conducted by Stuart Milne, BAThought LeadersDr Abu SerajuddinProfessor of Industrial PharmacySt John’s UniversityPlease tell us about your background and what you’re currently working on.I am a professor of industrial pharmacy at St. John’s University, where I joined 10 years ago.  Before that, I worked for 30 years in the pharmaceutical industry. At St. John’s, we are building an innovation center in pharmaceutical technology. We are involved with double upping new drug delivery systems, as well as a new processing agreement. In addition, we are focussing on personalized medications.What is “personalized medicine” and why is it important?In personalized medicines, we take people as individuals. All human beings have different combinations of systems in our body. I am different from another person, therefore, for example, I may have a different need for my medication or need a certain dose or certain types, compared to another person. Personalized medication allows us to individualize the medication to the needs of the patient and the genetic structures of that person, as well as their health condition.Current conventional medication is very different. For example, if you have a 100 mg tablet, you have to dispense a 100 mg tablet to the patient, even if you need another dose. You may have varying quantities such as 100 mg, 50 mg or 25 mg, and that is what you are limited to. If you need 75 mg, you cannot provide that and therefore this is a big challenge with the current system. In addition to this, all doses for all medicine don’t fit all patients, and so you need to individualize medication. ©  Amawasri Pakdara /Shutterstock.comDo you think in the future that all tablet medicines will be using this technique?It depends whether all tablets can be manufactured this way, for example, tablet manufacturing in the pharmaceutical industry now is very much well doubled up and you can make millions of tablets in a day. Therefore, it could not possibly replace all tablet manufacturing, because they’re available and everyone may not need the individualized medication. Some patients take medications for chronic conditions and require long term use, they will already know what dose to take on a daily basis, and so don’t need individualized medication.This will have an impact in clinical research, when you don’t know the generic components of a person, a physician can look at the genomic structure and can prescribe a certain dose, and that dose can be taken by the person, so it is individualized. That can have a big impact, but at this time it’s difficult to say whether it will replace all the tablet manufacturing that we have now.What are the challenges you’re still facing in making this a reality?The challenges we are currently facing is the identification of the polymers. There are some polymers available in the market, being used for 3D printing purposes, for example making models of different cars, but most of those polymers are not useful for pharmaceutical use, and don’t dissolve in water. We are looking for water-soluble polymers, and currently, many polymers dissolve slowly in water, so the drug is released over six to eight hours. We are looking for drugs that can be released in half an hour, 15 minutes or less than an hour.We need new polymers that are available for pharmaceutical use, and that are water-soluble, as well as polymers or polymer combinations that are flexible enough that we can print them in a 3D printer. Additionally, in my group, we are trying to double up polymers or polymer systems, that do not need high temperatures for printing purposes.Many of the publications in the current research literature, the printing is done around 200 degrees. But we are trying to double up polymers or combinations that can be printed at a much lower temperature, for example 100 degrees, or even less.One other area that we are looking is to take some polymers, for example I gave you the example of opioid crisis, we are looking for polymers that dissolve in water but cannot be crushed, cannot be dissolved in alcohol for abusing purposes. So these are some of the challenges. In addition, we are looking for assistance where we can make this whole process much faster. This, we cannot do in a pharmaceutical lab alone, and we have to work with the equipment manufacturers. What I am hoping is that if we can make progress in the laboratory, and if the equipment manufacturers think that this is really useful, this has a big future, and involve coming up with newer equipment.There are many 3D printers that are available, not for pharmaceutical but for other purposes. We can build on these other printers for the pharmaceutical field. 3D printing has doubled up in the last few years, the primary reason that all this progress has been made, is because we have a melt extruder. For all companies, melt extruder are available in the pharmaceutical field, and by using a melt extruder, and so we can make the filaments. We can make the formulations by using different drafts and different polymers and those we extrude through the extruder, we can get the filaments and then clean them before use.If you don’t have the melt extruder, it cannot be possible to 3D print. This is the most commonly used equipment in the pharmaceutical field for 3D printing, and is critically important. My belief is that there are other similar technologies that are available for 3D printing, nowadays diffuse disposition modelling is the one that is mostly used, and the melt extruder is the key component in the whole process. Personalizing Drug Doses with 3D Printing from AZoNetwork on Vimeo.Pharmaceutical companies are now using personalized medication in clinical research. In research a person may not respond to a certain medication or certain dose or they may experience a toxic affect with a certain dose, so in that case, you have to possibly formulate a different dose or different drug delivery system for that system. This means that you could not continuously do the clinical research, you have to double up the dose response that will create a lag time. Also, if you think about being in a pharmacy, if a person, for example, needs 5 mg but you have only 25 mg, you cannot dispense only 5 mg.How can 3D printing advance personalized medicine?If you are making medication individualized, it is possible to use 3D printing to print the exact dose that’s needed for a patient. In clinical research, this will accelerate the whole process because if a patient doesn’t respond to a certain dose, you can try giving another dose and make it immediately. This is a huge benefit of individualized medications.At St. John’s, we have started working on additive manufacturing by fused diffusion modelling. We have the complete line of facilities here and we use a hot melt extruder for making the filaments, and then we use them for 3D printing. Before we create the filaments, we have to select the polymers. There are many polymers available in the market, but most of them are not suitable for pharmaceutical use, therefore, we have to select the right polymers to use. If you make 3D printer tablets, you might have a polymer that dissolves very slowly. However, we have to identify polymers that dissolve fast, because most of the drugs need to act immediately.Therefore, we have to select the polymers that don’t extrude well. We characterize their glass transition temperatures i.e. the point at which the polymer becomes soft. Then, using our facilities, carry out the glass transition temperature. We also identify the viscosity of those materials so that it can be extruded through the extruder. In addition, we need a certain viscosity for them to be printed. Then, for the purpose of printing, there needs to be a certain flexibility on those filaments, therefore it is important to measure the flexibility of the filaments. This is some of the work that is going on in my lab.This sort of manufacturing pharmaceutical process in the future will impact clinical research of individualized medication, allowing the process to move more quickly, because you don’t have to wait to prepare different doses of drugs. And then, once you have it, you don’t have to limit yourself to certain doses. For example, you’ll give your filaments to the pharmacies that can print the medications with the dose that the patient needs. The technology is progressing so rapidly that in the future, the pharmacies will be able to print their tablets in the pharmacy.How are medications going to be prescribed for a patient?This is something that needs to be addressed, because there is a big forecast on individualized medication in this country. For example now, you look at the opiate crisis, which illustrated that different people have different incentives. What would happen in the future is if your person needs a small dose, that person will get the dose.If the person needs a bigger dose, that can be also printed. You can also change all the polymers in your formulation in such a way that makes them abuse resistant e.g., you can use a polymer where your materials cannot be ground, so that the people cannot take powder and sniff it; or you can you take a polymer that cannot be dissolved in alcohol and drunk; or even choose a polymer that is so viscous, people cannot dissolve it in a small amount of water and inject it. You can make all of these things by using this technology, I should however mention that we added endless days of research in this area, and in the future I am seeing even more progress. About Professor Abu SerajuddinAbu Serajuddin, Ph.D, joined St. John’s University in September 2008 as Professor of Industrial Pharmacy after working for over three decades in the pharmaceutical industry in scientific and managerial positions.Prior to joining Novartis, he worked for 12 years in Bristol-Myers Squibb and 10 years in Sanofi-Aventis (through mergers). In 2005, Novartis named him Novartis Leading Scientist, a top honor bestowed by the company, for extraordinary contribution to the development and growth of the company through scientific excellence. He received the Bristol-Myers Squibb President’s Award for unprecedented 3 times (1996-1998) for his contribution and leadership in solving difficult issues in drug development.Dr. Serajuddin is internationally recognized for his contribution to pharmaceutical sciences, especially in (a) the development of drug delivery systems for poorly water-soluble drugs, (b) formulation design and development, and (c) pharmaceutical processing. Additionally, he received two of the highest awards given by the American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists (AAPS). He also serves in the Editorial Advisory Boards of Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Journal of Excipients and Food Chemicals.Sponsored Content Policy: News-Medical.net publishes articles and related content that may be derived from sources where we have existing commercial relationships, provided such content adds value to the core editorial ethos of News-Medical.Net which is to educate and inform site visitors interested in medical research, science, medical devices and treatments.last_img read more

Traumatic brain injury biomarker could help predict patient prognosis

first_imgBy Sally Robertson, B.Sc.Jul 16 2018A preclinical study led by researchers at the University of California, Los Angeles, has shown that levels of a lipid called lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) are significantly increased following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Image Credit: Puwadol Jaturawutthichai / ShutterstockThe scientists found that LPA levels were also increased in response to cell death and axonal injury, events that occur in moderate and severe TBI.The authors say the findings support evidence that LPA could be used as biomarker of cellular pathology following TBI, potentially serving as a prognostic indicator of patient injury and outcome.Currently, it is difficult for clinicians to assess the degree of damage following TBI or to predict how long brain impairment will last or whether it will worsen.There is a need for non-invasive biomarkers to indicate the degree of injury, predict functional outcomes, and advise how long an injured patient must remain away from sports or work before resuming any activity. Source:https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2018-07/e-tbi071218.php LPA may well be a potential marker for that since we found it to be associated with major regions of brain pathology. It is also present in blood in high concentrations after injury.”Neil Harris, Lead Investigatorcenter_img The team used matrix-assisted laser desorption ionizing imaging mass spectrometry to acquire data on LPA, major LPA metabolites and haemoglobin at 1 and 3 hours after controlled cortical impact injury in a rodent model.They then used immunohistochemical to link this data with gray and white matter cellular pathology such as axonal injury and cell death.As reported in The American Journal of Pathology, significant increases in LPA and LPA precursors were observed one hour following injury, as well as a significant increase in LPA diffusively throughout the brain three hours following injury.Further analysis showed a significant association between levels of LPA and β-amyloid precursor protein, suggesting that LPA may be associated with secondary axonal injury.The researchers also found total LPA and metabolites in remotely injured regions, especially in the thalamus, where intracellular LPA is linked with cell death.Lead author Whitney McDonald says the results show that acute injury profoundly alters LPA and LPA metabolite expression throughout the brain and that this occurs particularly in white matter regions at both near and far sites from the injury epicentre.Harris says the results demonstrate that LPA may be a useful biomarker of cellular pathology following TBI: “If LPA can be shown to be a good predictor of outcome, then measuring LPA blood levels has potential as a prognostic indicator of injury and outcome.”Images of sagittal brain sections of lipid species obtained by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization imaging mass spectrometry from an uninjured control and a three hours postinjury (HPI) rat pseudocolored by intensity to demonstrate the brain-wide change in lipid levels after injury. Images of hemotoxylin and eosin (H&E) sections from adjacent sections highlight the brain regions used for mean signal intensity analysis. (Image Credit: The American Journal of Pathology)last_img read more

Teleflex enrolls first patient in clinical study of CleanSweep Closed Suction System

first_img Source:https://teleflexincorporated.gcs-web.com/news-releases/news-release-details/teleflex-announces-first-patient-enrollment-clinical-study Reviewed by James Ives, M.Psych. (Editor)Aug 28 2018Teleflex Incorporated, a leading global provider of medical technologies for critical care and surgery, today announced the first patient enrollment in a U.S. clinical study of CleanSweep™ Closed Suction System at Duke University Hospital in Durham, NC.CleanSweep Closed Suction System utilizes the dual operation of balloon sweeping technology with traditional suction collection to remove secretion build-up inside the endotracheal (ET) tube. In benchtop testing, CleanSweep Closed Suction System removed 2.5 times more secretions than the leading traditional closed suction device. CleanSweep Closed Suction System is designed to easily integrate into current airway management protocols, while providing enhanced secretion removal.Related StoriesHome-based support network helps stroke patients adjust after hospital dischargeTransobturator sling surgery shows promise for stress urinary incontinence’Traffic light’ food labels associated with reduction in calories purchased by hospital employees”During mechanical ventilation, secretions accumulate and microbial biofilm may form inside the ET tube. Even small reductions in ET tube radius can increase airflow resistance significantly,” said Neil MacIntyre, M.D., professor of medicine at Duke University Hospital. “The CleanSweep Closed Suction System may offer significant advantages in reducing ET tube obstruction.”Selection criteria for participants of the clinical study include patients receiving pressure or volume assist control ventilation who require ET tube suctioning more frequently than every 2.5 hours. Patients will be randomized to receive standard closed suctioning or CleanSweep Closed Suction System. Prior to suctioning, and within 15 minutes thereafter, respiratory system mechanics, hemodynamics, and gas exchange will be measured. For all participants, data will be collected from both devices to determine any statistically significant differences between CleanSweep Closed Suction System and standard closed suction technique.”Evaluating the effectiveness of closed suction devices further supports Teleflex’s commitment to developing technologies that help to advance respiratory care,” said Michael DiGiuseppe, Vice President of Teleflex Respiratory. “CleanSweep Closed Suction System has the potential to make a positive impact to airway management of the critical care patient.”last_img read more

Amid Partisan Split US House Panel Approves Controversial NSF Bill

Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe The chair of the House of Representatives science committee threw the legislative equivalent of a no-hitter last night, winning his panel’s approval of a bill that sets policy for the National Science Foundation (NSF) on a straight party-line vote. And although the committee’s Democratic minority failed to make any changes to a bill that the scientific community feels is seriously flawed, they made a strategic decision that they hope will lead to victory on a related NSF spending bill now pending on the floor of the U.S. House of Representatives.Playing flawless defense, Representative Lamar Smith (R–TX) and the committee’s Republican majority rejected all 13 Democratic amendments to the Frontiers in Innovation, Research, Science, and Technology Act (FIRST) Act, which covers programs at NSF and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). In straight party-line votes, the committee voted 20 to 16 to block attempts to remove language that would alter NSF’s grantsmaking processes and reshuffle funding within the $7 billion agency. Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) Email In fact, Smith came within one vote of throwing a legislative perfect game: Representative Bill Posey (R–FL) was the sole Republican to vote for any of the Democratic-backed amendments, supporting creation of a pilot program at NIST to spur innovation. But his “yea” vote simply meant that amendment lost by a margin of 17 to 19 rather than the 16 to 20 score recorded by the other dozen failed amendments.Panel Republicans also used their four-vote majority to win passage of an amendment by Representative Dana Rohrabacher (R–CA) that would lower by another $50 million the amount NSF is authorized to spend in 2015 on social, behavioral, and economic sciences (SBE) research. The FIRST Act already contained a $56 million reduction to the current $256 million SBE budget.In its final 20 to 16 vote, the panel voted to send FIRST to the full House, although it is not yet clear if the body’s leadership will schedule a vote on the bill this year.Yesterday’s orderly markup, which lasted only 45 minutes, stood in sharp contrast to last week’s rowdy 6-hour session. A demand from Democrats for recorded votes on most of the 28 amendments before the committee prevented Smith from completing work on a bill that has provoked strong opposition from academic leaders, professional societies, and university-industry coalitions that advocate for science.The only surprise yesterday was a last-minute decision by Representative Daniel Lipinski (D–IL) to withdraw one amendment that would have raised the amount of money that Congress authorizes NSF to spend in 2015 to equal the amount that the House Appropriations Committee approved for NSF earlier this month. Authorization bills usually set budget targets for an agency that exceed what appropriators are willing to spend. In a break from tradition, however, the FIRST Act authorizes $127 million less for NSF next year than the $7.4 billion in the 2015 appropriations bill, which covers several federal agencies.Knowing that his amendment was fated to lose on the same party-line vote as the other amendments, Lipinski told ScienceInsider that he withdrew it so that the committee’s Republicans did not have to publicly vote against the higher spending level for NSF. Lipinski hopes the maneuver will give some Republicans the green light to support the higher amount in the appropriations bill, which the House is expected to vote on this week. “They wouldn’t have been able to do that after voting against my amendment,” he explains.The appropriations committee’s 2015 spending level for NSF is actually $150 million higher than what President Barack Obama requested for the agency. And like Lipinski, the White House is doing everything it can to encourage House Republicans to support the higher amount.In an official statement yesterday on the overall spending bill (H.R. 4660), the Obama administration highlighted dozens of instances in which the bill falls short of its request for a particular program. But its analysis of the NSF portion of the bill is stunningly brief—and entirely positive: “The Administration appreciates the Committee’s support for NSF.  NSF invests in important research and education and lays the foundation for economic growth,” it reads.*Correction, 29 May, 11:30 a.m.: As Science reported in its initial version of this article, the panel voted 20 to 16 to send the FIRST bill to the full House. We apologize for the confusion about the nature of the vote taken by the committee. read more

Computer helps researchers tackle multiple flu strains at once

first_imgH1N1. H5N1. H7N9. The influenza virus comes in many varieties and goes by many names. Its diversity is also its greatest asset: the ability to change two proteins on its surface—H and N in shorthand—lets it evade the immune system and complicates the work of drug- and vaccinemakers. Now, researchers report that they’ve used computers to help them target a region of the virus that rarely changes, and they’ve designed a small protein that renders the virus unable to infect cells and cause disease, at least in mice.“It’s a new way to rationally develop antiviral drugs,” says veterinary microbiologist Jürgen Richt at Kansas State University, Manhattan, who was not involved in the study. “It’s a nice paper and I think they’re doing good work, but as always there is more to do.”Today in PLOS Pathogens, scientists report that they’ve designed small molecules to target a particularly vulnerable region of hemagglutinin, one of the two proteins that jut from the viral surface like a flower. They home in on the stem of the flower, a portion of the protein that remains conserved between varied strains of the virus. Scientists previously have shown that antibodies directed at the stem stop a diverse array of influenza viruses from causing an infection, and some are being developed as treatments. But the drug might have an advantage because mouse studies have found that monoclonal antibodies need help from other arms of the immune system that sometimes are compromised in the elderly—the group most vulnerable to influenza virus. Small molecule drugs are also far easier—and cheaper—to manufacture than monoclonal antibodies.  Koday et al., Creative Commons The researchers began with a small protein called HB36.5, which is known to bind to influenza’s hemagglutinin. Using a combination of laboratory assays and computer algorithms, the team tested various mutations in HB36.5, looking for single amino acid changes that would increase how tightly the protein bound to a diverse group of hemagglutinins. Eventually the tests converged on a protein with nine mutations, which the researchers dubbed HB36.6.The scientists gave HB36.6 to a group of mice both before and after infecting them with a lethal dose of flu virus. When given prophylactically, all of the mice survived and lost less weight than control animals infected with the same virus. When administered after infection, the protein was less effective, but still significantly reduced death and weight loss. Further testing showed that HB36.6 shuts down the virus without help from the immune system. Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country Emailcenter_img Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) Deborah Fuller, a microbiologist at the University of Washington, Seattle, who led the study, notes that HB36.6 is still a very long way from the pharmacy shelf. “This is a proof of concept,” Fuller says. “Everything works in mice, it seems. They’re not always the best predictor of what’s going to work in humans.” Still, Fuller and her team hope to move into clinical trials soon.Even if HB36.6 doesn’t prove its worth in human studies, the researchers contend it opens the door to a new class of computer-generated antiviral drugs. Aside from operating independent of the immune system, the approach may make it more difficult for the virus to become resistant to drugs. Like the combination therapies used to treat HIV, scientists could design a suite of slightly different proteins that targets the hemagglutinin stem region, making it more difficult for the virus to dodge the drug with a single mutation.Richt agrees the results are encouraging, but points out that HB36.6 may only have limited usefulness in the real world. Flu symptoms typically occur a few days after infection, and HB36.6 lost about half its effectiveness when administered 24 hours after infection in mice. “If we have a pandemic and everybody is nervous, and they want to take it as a prophylactic, that might be ok,” Richt says. But the ideal flu drug would work against all strains when symptoms surface, which remains a tall order.last_img read more

How scientists are combatting deadly fungus—with bakers yeast

first_img Virginia Cornish, Columbia University Just like a village can brew their own beer, they could now brew their own yeast diagnostics. How scientists are combatting deadly fungus—with baker’s yeast Cornish wanted to expand the variety of fungal infections that their system could detect. The team found that simply replacing the baker’s yeast mating receptor gene with similar genes from other pathogenic species—including Magnaporthe oryzae, which causes blast disease in rice, and Fusarium graminearum, which causes blight disease in wheat and barley—allowed them to create a total of 10 new strains that can each detect a different disease.To make the yeast biosensor user-friendly, they soaked it into a paper dipstick that can easily test blood, urine, water, and dirt. The dipstick, which contains a live version of the genetically modified baker’s yeast, still worked after being stored at room temperature for 38 weeks. “Just like a village can brew their own beer, they could now brew their own yeast diagnostics,” Cornish says. “And it is very low tech.”Keith Pardee, a synthetic biologist at the University of Toronto in Canada who developed paper-based screens for Zika virus, says he is excited by the new test. “Since this yeast is already found in the kitchen, it seems like a pretty natural fit for monitoring fungal contamination of food.”But Boissinot cautions that the sensor is not ready for deployment in the clinic. In a crucial test of their sensor, the researchers used higher levels of fungal pheromones than those normally found in patient blood or urine samples. And yeast biologist Joseph Heitman at Duke University in Durham, North Carolina, says that previous studies have shown some yeast mating receptors might respond to pheromones from similar species. That means that the biosensor could potentially misidentify some of the fungal diseases they are trying to detect.“We are not a game-changer yet,” Cornish concedes, “but we are working on improving this now.” Her team is also planning to develop a similar biosensor that can detect bacterial pathogens, including microbes responsible for cholera and the devastating citrus greening disease threatening Florida’s orange orchards. “This biosensor is impressive, and we should do more to make the microbes work for us, not against us,” Boissinot says. “It is going to be useful in the future, I am convinced about that.” Email By Ryan CrossJun. 28, 2017 , 4:15 PM Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country Researchers designed genetically modified yeast that turns red on a paper dipstick in the presence of fungal pathogens. So Virginia Cornish, a synthetic biologist at Columbia University, and her team set out to develop an alternative test with a long shelf life and no refrigeration using Saccharomyces cerevisiae, commonly known as baker’s yeast, as their model fungus. Like many other fungi, Baker’s yeast has mating receptors, proteins on its cell surface that detect pheromones released by potential partners. Cornish’s team took a mating receptor gene from Candida albicans, a common cause of yeast infections in humans, and stuck it in the baker’s yeast. They also added several other genes that they put under the receptor’s control—snippets that allow the yeast to produce lycopene, the red pigment and antioxidant abundant in tomatoes. In essence, the team turned the baker’s yeast into a biosensor that blushes tomato red upon detection of C. albicans. What’s more, the test yields results in just 3 hours, they report today in Science Advances. Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Fungi are a microscopic menace to global health and food security. More than 1 billion people are infected with disease-causing species worldwide, while other strains flourish in wheat, corn, and other crops, where they destroy food harvests. Now, a cheap and simple method that can easily detect the fungus among us without sophisticated lab equipment could help developing countries save millions of lives by diagnosing infections and finding contaminated crops and food.“This is highly commendable and a great achievement,” says Maurice Boissinot, a microbiologist who designs biosensors at Laval University in Quebec City, Canada, but was not involved in the new research. “The way they engineered [the test] is truly something.”Fungi come in many forms, some less benign than others. In addition to species that cause common skin infections such as ringworm and athlete’s foot, other strains cause internal infections that can lead to painful mouth lesions, swollen lymph nodes, and even death. Detecting these infections isn’t too hard for well-equipped labs and hospitals. But most tests rely on antibodies that bind fungal proteins or reading nucleic acids to identify fungi by their genes, thus requiring sterile labs and refrigerated reagents that doctors and farmers in developing countries often don’t have access to. Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) Columbia University Office of Communications and Public Affairs last_img read more

NASAs next Mars rover will land in Jezero crater which once hosted

first_img (GRAPHIC) A. CUADRA/SCIENCE; (DATA) NASA NASA’s next Mars rover will land in Jezero crater, which once hosted a lake and a river delta Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Spirit rover Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country By Paul VoosenNov. 19, 2018 , 12:35 PM Columbia Hills NASA/JPL/JHUAPL/MSSS/BROWN UNIVERSITY OlympusMons Sometimes, a problem really can be solved by meeting halfway. For the past 4 years, planetary scientists have wrestled over where to send NASA’s next Mars rover, a $2.5 billion machine to be launched in 2020 that will collect rock samples for eventual return to Earth. Next week, nearly 200 Mars scientists will gather for a final landing site workshop in Glendale, California, where they will debate the merits of the three candidate sites that rose to the top of previous discussions. Two, Jezero and Northeast Syrtis, hold evidence of a fossilized river delta and mineral springs, both promising environments for ancient life. Scientists yearn to visit both, but they are 37 kilometers apart—much farther than any martian rover has traveled except Opportunity.Now, the Mars 2020 science team is injecting a compromise site, called Midway, into the mix. John Grant, a planetary scientist at the Smithsonian Institution’s Center for Earth and Planetary Studies at the National Air and Space Museum in Washington, D.C., who co-leads the landing site workshops, says the team wanted to know whether a rover might be able to study the terrains found at Jezero and Northeast Syrtis by landing somewhere in the middle.So far, the answer appears to be yes. The Mars 2020 rover borrows much from the design of the Curiosity rover that has been exploring another Mars site for 6 years. But it includes advances such as a belly-mounted camera that will help it avoid landing hazards during its harrowing descent to the surface. This capability allowed scientists to consider Midway, just 25 kilometers from Jezero and close enough to drive there. At the same time, Midway’s rocks resemble those of Northeast Syrtis, says Bethany Ehlmann, a planetary scientist at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) in Pasadena and member of the Mars 2020 science team.Midway and Northeast Syrtis both hail from a time, some 4 billion years ago, when Mars was warmer and wetter. Surveys from orbit suggest the sites harbor rocks that formed underground in the presence of water and iron, a potential food for microbes. The rocks, exposed on the flanks of mesas, include a layer of carbonate deposits that many scientists believe were formed by underground mineral springs. Sheltered from a harsh surface environment, these springs would have been hospitable to life, Ehlmann says. “We should go where the action was.”Nearby Jezero crater has its own allure, etched on the surface: a fossilized river delta. Nearly 4 billion years ago, water spilled into the crater, creating the delta. “It’s right there,” says Ray Arvidson, a planetary geologist at Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri. “It’s beautiful.” Geologists know deltas concentrate and preserve the remnants of life; they can see that on Earth in offshore deposits of oil—itself preserved organic matter—fed by deltas like the Mississippi’s. New work to be presented at the workshop by Briony Horgan, a planetary scientist at Purdue University in West Lafayette, Indiana, will show that Jezero crater has a bathtub ring of carbonate—a strong sign that it once contained a lake. On Earth, such layers are often home to stromatolites, cauliflowerlike minerals created by ancient microbial life.Right now, the Mars 2020 team favors landing at Jezero and driving uphill to Midway, says Matt Golombek, a planetary scientist at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL) in Pasadena, and the other workshop co-leader. For the past year, the team has scoured potential routes between the two. “We haven’t identified any deal-breakers,” says Ken Farley, the mission’s project scientist and a Caltech geologist. The rover’s advanced autonomous driving should allow it to cover more ground than Curiosity, which often stops to plan routes. Even so, the path from Jezero to Midway would take nearly 2 years, Farley says. That means the rover could explore only one site during its primary 2-year mission, when it must drill and store 20 rock cores, to be picked up by future sample return missions. Exploration of the second site would have to come during an extended mission, after the rover’s warranty expires. “The further away you land from your gold mine, the higher the risk you might not get there,” Arvidson says. Elysium Mons North pole Email Jezerocenter_img N30⁰ Left out of those plans is the last leading candidate site: Columbia Hills. “I have a sense there’s a hill to climb,” says the site’s chief advocate, Steven Ruff, a planetary scientist at Arizona State University in Tempe. “I’ll go in with a lot of questions of whether they can make that drive between Midway and Jezero.” Columbia Hills sits within the large Gusev crater that the Spirit rover explored from 2004 to 2010. Driving backward while dragging a bad front wheel, Spirit gouged a trench that revealed opaline silica, a mineral that on Earth is a sure sign of life-supporting hot springs. Ruff has even proposed that the martian silica deposits are stromatolites.The engineers building Mars 2020 will be glad to settle on a destination, says Matt Wallace, the rover’s deputy project manager at JPL. The lab’s clean room is starting to fill up. The “sky crane” that will lower the rover to the surface is done. The spacecraft that will shepherd the rover to Mars is nearly complete—it just needs a heat shield, which is being rebuilt after testing revealed a crack. Several weeks ago, the chassis of the rover arrived and is now being filled with computers, batteries, and other electronics. Assembly of its complex drilling and sample storage system is underway, with other scientific instruments due by the end of February. “This is the mad scramble,” Farley adds. “It is full bore get it done, get it done now.”At the workshop’s end, scientists will vote on the candidates, followed by a closed-door meeting of the rover team to make a final choice. Engineers have deemed the sites safe for landing, Golombek adds, so it will come down to the science. The team’s recommendation won’t be the final word—the choice is ultimately up to NASA science chief Thomas Zurbuchen. But expect a decision within the next few months, if not sooner.*Correction, 12 October, 11:20 a.m.: An earlier version of this story incorrectly stated that no rover has traveled more than 37 kilometers or visited 4-billion-year-old martian terrain. The Opportunity rover has done both. Curiosity rover S30⁰ Equator North pole Landing sites under consideration Elysium Mons A happy medium Jezero and Northeast Syrtis, two attractive landing sites for NASA’s Mars 2020 rover, are close to each other. A new landing site, Midway, might allow the rover to study rocks from both terrains. Update: NASA today announced the destination for its next Mars rover, due for launch in 2020. The agency said it would send the rover to the 50-kilometer-wide Jezero crater, which billions of years ago harbored a lake that half filled the 500-meter-deep basin. The crater also contains within its rim a fossilized river delta, the sediments from a river that spilled into the crater—a promising place to search for evidence of past life. “Getting samples from this unique area will revolutionize how we think about Mars and its ability to harbor life,”  Thomas Zurbuchen, NASA’s associate administrator for science in Washington, D.C., said in a press conference.Mars scientists also wanted to visit a nearby site, called Northeast Syrtis, which contains rocks formed in the presence of mineral springs. So NASA dangled the possibility of a two-for-one special—that after visiting Jezero, the rover might climb out of the crater and travel 25 kilometers to Midway, a site that contains many of the same rocks as Northeast Syrtis. Zurbuchen said the possibility of an extended mission to Midway is not ruled out, but he wants the team to focus on Jezero crater for now. “Come the time, we want to talk about it,” he said. “But at this moment we’re focusing on the prime mission.”The 2020 rover will be tasked with gathering and caching rock and soil samples for eventual return to Earth by subsequent missions. At a workshop attended by hundreds of Mars scientists a month ago, Jezero was one of the leading landing sites. Here is our previous story from 10 October: Jezero crater holds a fossil river delta, which may have concentrated and preserved signs of life. Northeast Syrtis Midwaylast_img read more

This is shocking An undersea plague is obliterating a key ocean species

first_imgAn abundance of sunflower sea stars before the outbreak of “sea star wasting disease” off the coast of Canada. ‘This is shocking.’ An undersea plague is obliterating a key ocean species A dying sunflower star infected with “sea star wasting disease” in the Salish Sea off the coast of Washington state. By Alex FoxJan. 30, 2019 , 2:00 PM Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country An “underwater zombie apocalypse.” That’s how wildlife veterinarian Joe Gaydos of the University of California (UC), Davis, describes “sea star wasting disease,” a blight that has decimated more than 20 species of sea stars from Mexico to Alaska since 2013. Now, a new study by Gaydos and colleagues has more bad news: The disease has hit the sunflower star (Pycnopodia helianthoides)—a key predator within kelp forests—hardest of all. This once-common species has vanished from the majority of its range, sending shock waves through the ecosystems it once called home. The team also found a worrying association between warmer ocean temperatures and the severity of the outbreak, suggesting climate change could exacerbate future marine epidemics.“This is shocking,” says marine ecologist Mark Carr of UC Santa Cruz, who was not involved in the study. “This is not just a population reduction, this is virtually the loss of a key species over thousands of miles. We’ve never seen anything like this before.”Sea star wasting disease progresses from “that looks weird,” to “horror movie,” over a few days. White lesions appear, then expand into fissures of melting tissue. Limbs fall off and crawl away. And finally, the sea star disintegrates into a pale mound of decaying flesh. Neil McDaniel Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) Jenn Collins Scientists still haven’t identified the pathogen responsible for the disease. Research suggests the culprit is a virus, but which one remains unknown. Similar die-offs have struck the West Coast in previous decades, but none has been so deadly over such a large area. Of the 20 species affected by the outbreak, lab tests showed the sunflower star to be among the most susceptible.The meter-wide, 24-armed sunflower star stalks the kelp forest swallowing prey like kelp-munching sea urchins whole. As one of the top predators of invertebrates these supersize stars help maintain balance in the kelp forest ecosystem. Left unchecked, sea urchins can mow down kelp forests, leaving behind a denuded and depauperate undersea landscape. The sunflower star used to be a common sight underwater, but since its disappearance and the subsequent boom of urchins, northern California has lost more than 90% of its kelp forests, according to the California Department of Fish and Wildlife.The loss of those kelp forests has left the other species that depend on them hungry, homeless, or dead. In December 2018, California moved to extend a ban on recreational fishing for red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) after surveys showed the mollusks, which feed on kelp, were starving to death in huge numbers. Impacts to fish species are more challenging to quantify, but Carr says kelp forests are of vital importance not just as food, but as habitat, especially for young fish hoping to evade predators. To gauge the impact of sea star wasting disease on the sunflower star, Gaydos’s colleague Drew Harvell, a Cornell University marine ecologist based in Friday Harbor, Washington, and other team members analyzed counts of the sunflower stars from nearly 11,000 shallow water scuba dives and close to 9000 bottom trawling surveys in deeper water. Hundreds of citizen scientists trained to identify and record the presence of the sunflower star conducted the shallow water surveys, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) conducted the bottom trawls, which consist of systematically dragging a net along the sea floor to sample marine biodiversity.These data sets spanned nearly a decade prior to the collapse of sea stars and covered more than 3000 kilometers of coastline. Shallow and deep-water surveys showed stable populations followed by steep declines of the sunflower star ranging from a 60% population reduction up to 100% in some areas after the onset of the wasting disease in 2013, the researchers report today in Science Advances.“Many people expected the sunflower stars to be taking refuge in the deep water where we couldn’t count them,” says Steve Lonhart, a kelp forest ecologist with the NOAA based in Monterey, California, who was not involved in the study. “We hoped they were hiding down there—this research shows that hope was naïve.”The onset of sea star wasting disease also coincided with the warmest 3-year period on record for California’s coastal waters—2014, 2015, and 2016—according to NOAA climate researcher Nate Mantua in Santa Cruz, who was not involved in the study. To see whether there was a connection between water temperature and the disease, the study authors compared sea surface temperatures from the times and locations of each survey with the decline in sunflower stars. Their analysis found that the times and locations of the biggest death tolls coincided with the presence of abnormally warm water.Mantua is the co-author of a 2018 paper in the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society showing that climate change played a large role in the warming of California’s coastal waters from 2014 to 2016. Climate projections indicate those temperatures will become commonplace by the 2050s, he says.“Many of these outbreaks are heat sensitive. In the lab, sea stars got sick sooner and died faster in warmer water,” Harvell says. “A warming ocean could increase the impact of infectious diseases like this one.”The declining kelp forests of northern California are unlikely to recover unless sea urchins succumb to a pestilence of their own or their natural predators are restored. Harvell thinks the imperiled sunflower star should get strong consideration for being added to the U.S. Endangered Species List, and that a formal recovery plan may be necessary.“I’m more worried now than I was before I read this paper,” Lonhart says. “We could be watching the extinction of what was a common species just 5 years ago.” Emaillast_img read more

MiniNeptune found orbiting distant star

first_img Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe NASA Goddard Space Flight Center ‘Mini-Neptune’ found orbiting distant star By Sid PerkinsJan. 7, 2019 , 5:15 PM Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) A warm, gaseous planet about three times the diameter of Earth circles an orange dwarf star about 53 light-years away, astronomers reported today at the annual meeting of the American Astronomical Society in Seattle, Washington. The planet, dubbed HD21749b (depicted above in an artist’s representation), is one of three small exoplanets discovered by one of NASA’s newest satellites.HD21749b has an estimated density about that of water. That means it’s unlikely to be a rocky planet like Earth, though it may have some rocky parts. It’s also a lot hotter than our home planet, orbiting its sun—HD21749—at about half the distance from which Mercury orbits our star. Data suggest the planet has a relatively toasty cloud-top temperature of 149°C, somewhat cooler than Mercury because the host star HD21749 is somewhat smaller and cooler than our sun.The planet was first discovered by NASA’s Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite, which was launched in April 2018. That probe is designed to look for the minieclipses that occur when planets pass in front of their host stars as seen from Earth. Subsequent analyses of old data gathered by ground-based telescopes helped the scientists calculate the planet’s 36-day-long “year.” Email In an as-yet-unconfirmed finding, submitted to The Astrophysical Journal Letters, the team also reports detecting an Earth-size planet that orbits HD21749 once every 7.8 days or so. Because that planet orbits its host star even closer than HD21749b does, it would likely have a surface temperature that’s much hotter.last_img read more

Podcast a mysterious blue pigment in the teeth of a medieval woman

first_imgOBERLIN.EDU/WIKIMEDIA COMMONS Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) provide free lectures and assignments, and gained global attention for their potential to increase education accessibility. Plagued with high attrition rates and fewer returning students every year, MOOCs have pivoted to a new revenue model—offering accredited master’s degrees for professionals. Host Meagan Cantwell speaks with Justin Reich, an assistant professor in the Comparative Media Studies Department at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, about the evolution of MOOCs and how these MOOC professional programs may be reaching a different audience than traditional online education.Archaeologists were flummoxed when they found a brilliant blue mineral in the dental plaque of a medieval-era woman from Germany. It turned out to be lapis lazuli—an expensive pigment that would have had to travel thousands of kilometers from the mines of Afghanistan to a monastery in Germany. Host Sarah Crespi talks to Christina Warinner, a professor of archaeogenetics at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Jena, Germany, about how the discovery of this pigment shed light on the impressive life of the medieval woman, an artist who likely played a role in manuscript production.This week’s episode was edited by Podigy.Download the transcript (PDF)Listen to previous podcasts.About the Science Podcast[Image:Oberlin.edu/Wikimedia Commons; Music: Jeffrey Cook]last_img read more

Shutdown imperils NASAs decadelong icemeasuring campaign

first_img This year’s 8-week Arctic campaign was set to start 4 March from Thule Air Base in Greenland. But the shutdown has delayed maintenance and outfitting of the aircraft NASA uses—a low-flying P-3 Orion—forcing a later start date.Researchers are crestfallen. The measurements are among IceBridge’s most important because they will be simultaneous with those made by ICESat-2, which launched in September 2018. That will help ensure the satellite’s accuracy and calibrate its results with past records. “We expected to be in an ideal position this spring,” Sonntag says. (He can talk to the media, he noted, because he is a NASA contractor who is still getting paid. Many NASA employees on his team are furloughed.)IceBridge could still lose more time. The flights must take place before the melt season, and the P-3 is already scheduled to move to the Philippines immediately after its polar flights for a monsoon-monitoring experiment. As a result, the delay “could get worse if the shutdown goes on,” says Eric Rignot, a glaciologist at the University of California, Irvine, and a leader of the IceBridge science team.One bit of good news is that NASA recently allowed maintenance work to begin on the P-3, which is based at NASA’s Wallops Flight Facility in Virginia. Even if that work is done, the science team does not have permission to enter the facility to mount its instruments, including a laser meant to match ICESat-2’s remarkably precise altimeter. In the meantime, NASA’s closure means work on understanding the new ICESat-2 data has slowed to a crawl, says Ben Smith, a glaciologist at the University of Washington in Seattle. “One main thing we’re missing right now is the people at NASA who have the big picture, who get everyone to work together.”The IceBridge and ICESat-2 data sets will be merged even if the spring campaign is canceled, which would be “inexcusable,” adds Beata Csatho, a remote-sensing glaciologist at the University at Buffalo, part of the State University of New York system. But Smith says a cancellation could make it harder to fix any systematic errors that crop up in the satellite data. “If you’re planning for the worst,” he says, “you definitely want to get this set of measurements.”It’s not the first time IceBridge has faced a shutdown. In 2013, a 16-day budget impasse cut what could have been a 6-week campaign to 9 days. That has left uncertainty about ice loss that continues to disappoint Sonntag to this day. “I have never been so angry and frustrated,” he recalls. But with the current shutdown, he’s getting close. Delayed maintenance work means NASA’s P-3 Orion will miss at least half of its IceBridge campaign to measure Arctic sea ice. Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) By Paul VoosenJan. 18, 2019 , 3:10 PM Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country The spreading effects of the partial U.S. government shutdown have reached Earth’s melting poles. IceBridge, a decadelong NASA aerial campaign meant to secure a seamless record of ice loss, has had to sacrifice at least half of what was supposed to be its final spring deployment, its scientists say. The shortened mission threatens a crucial plan to collect overlapping data with a new ice-monitoring satellite called the Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2).The nearly monthlong spending impasse between Congress and President Donald Trump, “throws a giant wrench into that long-developed plan,” says John Sonntag, an IceBridge mission scientist at Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland.NASA, among the many research agencies mostly closed by the shutdown, launched IceBridge in 2009 after the failure of ICESat-1, the agency’s first laser-based ice-monitoring satellite. To fill the gap until ICESat-2 was launched, the agency funded annual aircraft flights over the Arctic and Antarctica. IceBridge scientists sought to match the satellite data by flying similar paths over glaciers and sea ice, using the reflected light of a laser altimeter to measure ice and snow height.center_img Christy Hansen/NASA (CC BY) Email Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Shutdown imperils NASA’s decadelong ice-measuring campaignlast_img read more

Maleah Davis Father Breaks His Silence

first_imgHundreds of people attended the Walk With Maleah on Sunday in Houston to honor Maleah Davis, the four-year-old girl who went missing last month. City Hall was lit up in pink, which was the child’s favorite color. Maleah’s father, Craig Davis, spoke to supporters for the first time since the body of his four-year-old daughter was found in Arkansas last week.See Also: A Timeline Of Dallas Cop Amber Guyger Killing Botham Jean In His Own Home Entertainment, News and Lifestyle for Black America. News told by us for us. Black America’s #1 News Source: Our News. Our Voice. There was a moment of silence held for Maleah and Sunday was declared “Maleah Davis Day” in Houston. More By NewsOne Staff “I appreciate you all so much. You all don’t know what this means to us. It’s amazing,” an emotional Craig Davis said. “I love you all as much as you all love my daughter, even more than you all can imagine.” Thanks for signing up! Get ready for Exclusive content, Interviews,and Breaking news delivered direct to your inbox. Get ready for Exclusive content, Interviews,and Breaking news delivered direct to your inbox. Honoring Maleah Davis: City hall is pink tonight, Maleah’s favorite color. A small crowd has gathered to continue grieving and praying for the 4-year-old, whose disappearance and murder captured the heart of the community. Mayor Turner proclaimed June 9 “Maleah Davis Day” pic.twitter.com/ryjFyuy37i— City of Houston (@HoustonTX) June 10, 2019The lone suspect, Maleah’s stepfather Derion Vence, is denying any responsibility even though he was being held in jail on related charges.“I would never do anything to hurt her. That’s not me,” Vence, 27, told ABC’s Texas station KTRK in an interview last week. “Ask anyone who knows me, and they’ll tell you I’m not that type of dude and I was good with the kids. I ain’t no killer, bro.”Police claim Vence led them to Maleah’s body but he somehow was still maintaining that he had nothing to do with her death. In his interview, he provided no other answers. Gov. Cuomo Slams Mayor Bill De Blasio For The Eric Garner Case But He Also Failed The Family Child Abuse , Craig Davis , Derion Vence , Maleah Davis Meghan McCain Whines That She Can’t Attack llhan Omar Because Trump Is Too Racist Vence remains jailed on charges of with tampering a corpse, but he has avoided more serious charges. He originally told Sgt. Mark Holbrook of the Houston Police Department’s Homicide Division that he, Maleah and his two-year-old son were on their way to George Bush Intercontinental Airport to pick up Bowens, who was flying in from Massachusetts the night of May 4. Vence said he heard a “popping noise” and pulled over. He said a blue pickup truck pulled up behind his vehicle and two Hispanic males got out and hit him in the head. He said he lost consciousness and woke up at 6 p.m. the next day. He said Maleah was missing but his son was still there. Vence claimed he then walked to a hospital, received treatment and then reported Maleah as missing.Rest in peace, Maleah Davis.SEE ALSO:All The Ways Cops Are Still Trying To Cover Up LaQuan McDonald’s ExecutionOutrageous! Figurines Of White Cherub Crushing Head Of Black Angel Removed From Dollar StoreMeet Jogger Joe, The Man Who Took Racist Cue From BBQ Becky In Tossing Homeless Man’s Clothes A$AP Rocky Being In A Swedish Prison Will Not Stop Her From Going To The Country That Showed Her ‘So Much Love’ Jesse Jackson Demands ‘Justice Now’ At EJ Bradford’s Moving Funeral Ceremony Emantic "EJ" Fitzgerald Braford Jr. SUBSCRIBE last_img read more

The Titanic survivor no one believed was genuine

first_imgPerhaps the most moving part of the entire Titanic saga is hearing the survivor’s personal stories, how they ended up on the luxury ocean-liner and how they evaded death on the night of April 14, 1912. Over 1,500 passengers perished in the ocean — only about 700 were rescued. Some stories speak of unprecedented human achievements. Take Richard Norris Williams II who made it through after hours of clinging to a makeshift lifeboat. All that time, his legs remained immersed in the ice-cold water. When a doctor had him checked on RMS Carpathia, Williams was told he needed an amputation, however, he refused. He endured through the pain, revitalized his legs and made a miraculous recovery. Eight years later, he won the Gentlemen’ Doubles at the 1920 Wimbledon Championships along with Chuck Garland.Other stories are not so uplifting, such as that of Jennie Louise Hansen from Wisconsin. She made it through the tragedy but was deeply shocked by everything she witnessed. The trauma this woman endured damaged her nerves greatly. Ms. Hansen reportedly became incapable of ever shedding a tear again.The RMS Titanic docked in Southampton shortly before the start of the journey.When Berthe Antonine Mayné tried to share her survival story with close family, supposedly nobody believed what she was saying.The Belgian woman made her salary by performing and singing in cabarets around Brussels. In the capital, she was a familiar face “in circles of pleasure and was often seen in the company of people who like to wine and dine and enjoy life,” according to Het Laatste Nieuws.A photo portrait of Berthe Antonine Mayné (Madame de Villiers). Photo courtesy: Archives Nationales FranceMs. Mayné was reportedly in a relationship with Fernand de Villiers, a soldier from France who joined troops to the Belgian Congo, when she met a Canadian millionaire, Quigg Edmond Baxter, at the end of 1911. Their romance apparently developed remarkably quickly.Baxter had wealthy parents and was originally a hockey player by occupation. However, after suffering a severe injury to one of his eyes, which impaired his sight, Baxter had to stop playing and became a hockey coach.View of the bow of the RMS Titanic photographed in June 2004.He traveled to Europe with both his mother and sister and the three of them planned to return to the U.S. with the RMS Titanic. Though Baxter and Mayné had been seeing each other only for a few months, Mayné became the fourth companion on the voyage. They boarded first-class from Cherbourg, France.RMS Titanic.Mayné was probably thrilled at the thought of starting anew on the other side of the ocean, in the New World. These were the peak years of mass migration and many people were trying their luck in North America. From a Brussels cabaret star, there she was, with a first-class ticket on the most opulent-looking ship in the world.In the spirit of good manners, Mayné was registered as “Mrs de Villiers” on board the ocean-liner and was booked into a separate cabin from Baxter, according to Encyclopedia-Titanica.Unfortunately, the time to enjoy the ship and its beauty was short-lived, not only for Mayné and Baxter but for everyone on board. The horror began when the Titanic struck an iceberg some 300 miles southeast of Newfoundland.A drawing of the RMS Titanic’s famed Grand Staircase. The drawing was featured in a 1912 promotional booklet about the luxurious ocean-liner.When the ocean-liner abruptly came to a halt in the middle of nowhere, Baxter went to find out what happened and came across Captain Smith and Bruce Ismay. He approached them and the captain allegedly said, “There’s been an accident, Baxter, but it’s all right.” Except nothing was all right. Captain Smith then hurried to the bridge, and Ismay told Baxter to gather his family and head to the lifeboats.Baxter quickly rushed everyone out off their cabins. Mayné, donning a long woolen overcoat over her nightgown, was escorted to lifeboat number 6. She was hesitant to climb in without Baxter. She expressed a wish to go back to the cabin and pick up left-behind jewelry, but an alert Molly Brown, probably the best-remembered survivor on lifeboat No. 6, talked Berthe out of such crazy ideas. The ship was sinking fast.Berthe Antonine Mayné. Photo courtesy: Archives Nationales FranceAs the lifeboat was lowered to the dark ocean surface, Baxter waved goodbye to his lover, to his sister and mother. This would be the last they saw of him. He was never traced among those few recovered bodies after the Titanic perished to the depths. He was 24 at the time, the same age as Berthe.Following the tragedy, Berthe Mayné remained with the grieving Baxter family, at least for a while. She eventually relocated to Paris, where she continued her singing career. She didn’t marry anyone after that.Lifeboat filled with Titanic survivors.Upon retirement, the Belgian woman moved back to Brussels. Though she didn’t have a husband or children of her own, Mayné still had a nephew and other close family members. It’s pity if none of them believed she had journeyed on the Titanic in her youth.Read another story from us: Titanic Orphans: A father ‘kidnapped’ his two sons, boarded with false names and passed awayShe had this heart-wrenching story to tell, but her family only realized it was true after her death in 1962, at the age of 75 years. While sorting through Mayné’s belongings, her nephew came across a shoebox full of memories — letters, photographs, and other personal belongings. The memorabilia testified to his aunt’s ill-fated journey across the ocean.last_img read more

Googles Pixel 2 Earns High Marks in Spite of Dull Design

first_imgThe Pixel 2 cameras garnered praise from most reviewers. Unlike other premium phones, the same quality cameras are included in both phone models, the 5-inch Pixel 2 and 6-inch Pixel 2 XL. Each has a 12.2 megapixel camera with f/1.8 aperture on the back and an 8 MP with f/2.4 shooter at the front.”The photos I took with the device were stunning,” wrote Avery Hartmans for Business Insider.”They’re almost impossibly detailed without looking fake or overwrought,” she noted. “Their colors are beautiful and true-to-life. And the camera has extra controls that make it feel closer to a DSLR.”What makes the camera really special, though, is it’s ability to create photo effects with a single lens that competitors need twin cameras to create.”It’s a testament to what Google has been able to do with computational photography,” said Ross Rubin, principal analyst at Reticle Research.”The results are competitive to what’s done with two cameras,” he told TechNewsWorld, “and they can do them with both the front and back cameras — something Apple will only support on the iPhone X.” Great Choice for Android Fans Appreciation for Function The Pixel 2s are “a great choice for Android fans that care about camera quality and having an easy-to-use interface above all else,” wrote Lisa Eadicicco for Time magazine.”Yes, nothing about the Pixel 2 sets it apart from Apple and Samsung’s phones,” she continued. “But while Google’s rivals are setting the stage for what’s to come by incorporating potentially trendsetting new technologies like facial recognition and iris scanning, Google is quickly catching up.”While acknowledging the larger of the two new Pixel phones’ shortcomings, USA Today’s Edward C. Baig still recommended upgrading to the model.”Although it is not perfect, the Pixel 2 XL is a strong upgrade over Google’s first foray into producing its own phones,” he wrote. “While it lacks some features found on other top phones from Samsung and Apple, photo buffs and Android fans will be very pleased with what Google’s done with the Pixel 2.”After calling the first Pixel mobile “the greatest phone on the planet,” Wired magazine’s David Pierce reined in the praise a bit on this generation of Pixels.”My whole Pixel experience comes down to this: It has the fewest flaws of any Android phone on the market,” he wrote.”If you want a phone that does the most stuff, you’re going to want a Samsung phone, probably the Note 8. It remains the All The Things phone to beat,” Pierce continued. “But if you want a phone you don’t have to learn to use or fuss with just to make work properly, you want a Pixel 2.” Stunning Photos John P. Mello Jr. has been an ECT News Network reportersince 2003. His areas of focus include cybersecurity, IT issues, privacy, e-commerce, social media, artificial intelligence, big data and consumer electronics. He has written and edited for numerous publications, including the Boston Business Journal, theBoston Phoenix, Megapixel.Net and GovernmentSecurity News. Email John. Google’s design philosophy won praise from Dieter Bohn, however, in his review for The Verge.For example, although the Pixel 2 phones are made with the same aluminum and glass materials found in competing premium mobiles, they don’t feel the same, he pointed out. Google deliberately gave the phones’ metal body a textured finish that makes them easier to grip.”Google took what could have been a visually impressive design and covered it up in the name of ergonomics. It literally made a metal phone feel like a plastic one. It chose function over form,” Bohn wrote.”At nearly every turn, with both the hardware and the software, Google made that design decision again and again,” he continued. ” There have been a few times when I wish the company had risked a little more razzamatazz, but mostly I’ve been appreciating the focus on improving the basics.” Software Is Strong Suit Conflicted Views “Google didn’t take many risks in its design,” he told TechNewsWorld. “The Pixel 2 is the only premium Android smartphone without an edge-to-edge display, two cameras, and support for fast gigabit LTE service.” Google’s software for the new Pixels also received praise from critics.”The Pixel 2’s strongest feature is its software, which is pure Google and optimized for Google services,” Moor Insight’s Moorhead said.Integration with Google services give the Pixel 2 line a leg up on the iPhone and Galaxy lines, maintained Hayley Tsukayama, writing for The Washington Post.”Not only will the Pixel continue to get the latest updates immediately from Google itself, but it also hooks into Google services in a deep way,” she wrote.”Google Assistant is embedded in the phone and getting smarter with conversational speech,” she continued, “and Pixel 2 users get a generous cloud photo storage offer for unlimited photos and videos through 2020.” In a market where all high-end smartphones are beginning to blend together, Google services, and their use of artificial intelligence, could be a big differentiator for Pixel 2.”Consumers already have very robust devices in their pockets and purses, so a little sharper display, a little more processing power, and a little more memory isn’t going to get them to upgrade,” said Tuong Nguyen, an analyst at Gartner.However, “when you talk about something like Google services, that’s significant,” he told TechNewsWorld. “The AI features of the Pixel 2 are the biggest deal about this device.”For some reviewers, the new Pixel phones stirred conflicting feelings.”The Pixel 2 isn’t a luxury device, and its design isn’t going to wow anyone,” Business Insider’s Hartmans wrote.”But I’m a fan of the Pixel 2,” she added. “It’s easy and comfortable to use. I could imagine owning the Pixel 2 for years and not wanting or really needing to upgrade.” As Google’s new Pixel 2 smartphones get ready to hit the shelves, reviews of the models have begun mushrooming online.While the new phones generally have received positive grades, many reviewers found the their design boring.”The Pixel 2 hardware is ho-hum,” observed Patrick Moorhead, principal analyst at Moor Insights and Strategy.last_img read more

Integral Molecular wins NIH grant to initiate target discovery program for Alzheimers

first_imgReviewed by Alina Shrourou, B.Sc. (Editor)Nov 1 2018Integral Molecular, the industry leader in membrane protein technologies, was awarded a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant from the NIH to initiate a target discovery program for Alzheimer’s disease. Under the grant, Integral Molecular will use its highly successful Membrane Proteome Array (MPA) platform to discover novel neuroimmune targets for treating Alzheimer’s and other neurodegenerative diseases.Neurodegenerative diseases are a leading cause of death and disability for 6.5 million older Americans. A major roadblock in the development of new treatments has been the lack of druggable targets. Recent research suggests that dysregulation of the immune system can cause or exacerbate many neurodegenerative diseases. The identification of new proteins that can regulate the neuroimmune system could enable the discovery of an entirely new generation of therapeutics with the potential to treat, delay, or even prevent Alzheimer’s disease.Related StoriesNew research links “broken heart syndrome” to cancerStudy finds sex-specific differences in risk and progression of Alzheimer’s diseaseMother calls for protein shake regulation after daughter dies”The lack of effective targets in Alzheimer’s disease has held back the discovery of new drugs to treat it,” says Benjamin Doranz, CEO of Integral Molecular. “We have already identified new targets in the immuno-oncology and infectious disease fields using our MPA platform, so we are excited to expand our work to include neurodegenerative diseases.”Integral Molecular’s MPA technology is composed of 5,300 human membrane proteins expressed in their functional form on the surface of live human cells, allowing signaling and binding assays to detect functional interactions. Integral Molecular has already used the MPA to identify novel targets and protein interactions in various therapeutic areas, as well as to obtain off-target binding profiles to de-risk drug development.​ Source:https://www.integralmolecular.com/last_img read more

Furloughed feds health coverage intact but shutdown still complicates things

first_img This article was reprinted from khn.org with permission from the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Kaiser Health News, an editorially independent news service, is a program of the Kaiser Family Foundation, a nonpartisan health care policy research organization unaffiliated with Kaiser Permanente. Reviewed by James Ives, M.Psych. (Editor)Jan 18 2019Joseph Daskalakis’ son was born New Year’s Eve, a little over a week into the current government shutdown, and about 10 weeks before he was expected.Little Oliver ended up in a specialized neonatal intensive care unit, the only one that could care for him near their home in Lakeville, Minn.But air traffic controller Daskalakis, 33, has an additional worry: The hospital where the newborn is being treated is not part of his current insurer’s network and the partial government shutdown prevents him from filing the paperwork necessary to switch insurers, as he would otherwise be allowed to do. He could be on the hook for a hefty bill — while not receiving pay. Daskalakis is just one example of federal employees for whom being unable to make changes to their health plans really matters.Although the estimated 800,000 government workers affected by the shutdown won’t lose their health insurance, an unknown number are in limbo, like Daskalakis, unable to change insurers because of unforeseen circumstances; add family members such as spouses, newborns or adopted children to an existing health plan; or deal with other issues that might arise.”With 800,000 employees out there, I imagine that this is not a one-off event,” said Dan Blair, who served as both acting director and deputy director of the federal Office of Personnel Management (OPM) during the early 2000s and is now senior counselor at the Bipartisan Policy Center. “The longer this goes on, the more we will see these types of occurrences.”While Oliver is getting stronger every day — he’s now out of the ICU, according to Daskalakis’ local air traffic union representative — it’s unclear how the situation will affect his family’s finances.That’s because out-of-network charges are generally far higher than being in-network, and NICU care is enormously expensive no matter what. Those bills could add up, especially as his current insurance has an out-of-pocket maximum of $12,000 annually. Because Oliver was born before the new year, the family could face that amount for 2018 — and 2019.Daskalakis isn’t getting paid, either.”I don’t know when I’ll be able to change my insurance, or when I’ll get paid again,” Daskalakis wrote Sen. Tina Smith (D-Minn.), who shared his letter on Facebook and before the Senate last week.Other families are also worried about paperwork delays, and the financial and medical effects a prolonged shutdown could cause.Dania Palanker, a health policy researcher at Georgetown’s Center on Health Insurance Reforms, studies what happens when families face insurance difficulties. Now she’s also living it.After arranging to reduce her work hours because of health problems, Palanker knew her family would not qualify for coverage through her university job. No problem, she thought, as she began the process in December to enroll her family into coverage offered by her husband’s job with the federal government.Related StoriesBordeaux University Hospital uses 3D printing to improve kidney tumor removal surgeryHome-based support network helps stroke patients adjust after hospital dischargeStudy analyzes high capacity of A. baumannii to persist on various surfaces”We could not get the paperwork in time to apply for special enrollment through the government and get it processed before the shutdown,” Palanker said.Georgetown allowed her to boost her work hours this month to keep the family insured through January, but Georgetown’s share of her coverage will end in February.Her treatments are expensive, so she is likely to hit or exceed her annual $2,000 deductible in January — then start over with another annual deductible once the family secures new coverage.”I’m postponing treatment in hopes that it is just a month and I’m back on the federal plan in February, but I can’t postpone indefinitely, as my condition will get worse,” said Palanker, who has an autoimmune disease that causes nerve damage.Overseeing federal health benefits programs is within the purview of the OPM, whose data hub is operational, according to a spokeswoman. But getting information to that data hub to make the kind of changes Daskalakis, Palanker and others need depends on the individual agencies that employ government workers.The OPM has told government agencies “that they should have HR staff available during the lapse, specifically to process” such requests, which are called “qualifying life events,” the spokeswoman said.In a written statement Wednesday, Smith said: “Oliver’s story is a powerful reminder that hundreds of thousands of real families have had their financial and personal lives turned upside down by this unnecessary shutdown.” She called on the president to come back to the negotiating table.For Daskalakis, there is some good news.Tony Walsh, his union rep, said the OPM website and Daskalakis’ insurer both indicated that the air traffic controller’s request to change carriers so the hospital will be in-network will be retroactive to Oliver’s birthday, and the out-of-network charges may not play a role.Just to be safe, “Joe is currently working on an insurance appeal based on no in-network care [being available],” Walsh said in an emailed statement. The family has already received an initial $6,000 bill from the hospital, Walsh noted, saying the charges do not include costs associated with Oliver’s birth or his stay in the intensive care unit.Walsh said the shutdown is affecting a broad swath of employees in ways many lawmakers had never anticipated.The workers “are essential to the system, and it’s unfair they are being treated this way,” he said.last_img read more

Researcher discovers blood vessel system in bones

first_imgReviewed by Alina Shrourou, B.Sc. (Editor)Jan 30 2019A network of very fine blood vessels that connects bone marrow directly with the blood supply of the periosteum that was previously overlooked has now been discovered by Dr. Anika Grüneboom, a young researcher who is now working at Universitätsklinikum Erlangen. She made this groundbreaking discovery while working on her doctoral thesis at Universität Duisburg-Essen (UDE) with Prof. Dr. Matthias Gunzer. Researchers from Universitätsklinikum Essen, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) and research institutes in Jena, Berlin, Dresden and Bern were also involved in the study.Although bones are very hard organs, they also have a dense network of blood vessels inside them where the bone marrow is located as well as on the outside that is covered by the periosteum. This is why bone fractures often cause serious bleeding. However, new blood cells can also leave the bone marrow via this system of vessels and enter the body.’As with every organ, bones need a closed bloodstream for these functions. While fresh blood is transported into organs via arteries, veins transport the ‘used’ blood back out again. The precise structure of this closed bloodstream in long bones was not clear up to now’, explains Dr. Anika Grüneboom, Department of Medicine 3 – Rheumatology and Immunology at Universitätsklinikum Erlangen.Over one thousand blood vessels in some placesThe group of researchers have now found thousands of previously unknown blood vessels in the bones of mice that traverse perpendicularly across the entire length of the compact bone, the so-called cortical bone. The researchers have named them ‘trans-cortical vessels’ (TCVs) for this reason. Furthermore, they were able to demonstrate that the majority of both arterial and venous blood flows through this newly discovered system of vessels. This means that the system is a central component for supplying bones with oxygen and nutrients.Related StoriesLab-grown blood vessels provide hope for dialysis patientsBlood based test using AI and nanotechnology devised for chronic fatigue syndromeMathematical model helps quantify metastatic cell behaviorIn addition, the researchers discovered that the newly-discovered system of vessels is used by the immune cells in bone marrow to reach the bloodstream. In the case of inflammatory diseases such as arthritis, it is especially important that immune cells reach the source of the inflammation quickly. ‘This network of blood vessels in the bone is similar to an underground train system that is able to successfully transport large numbers of passengers quickly and directly through barriers’, explains Dr. Grüneboom.Lead researcher Prof. Gunzer adds: ‘The previous concepts only described a few single arterial canals and two venous canals in bones. This is completely inaccurate and does not reflect the actual situation at all. It is quite surprising that we can still find new anatomic structures in the 21st century that are not found in any textbooks.’ The discovery was possible due to a unique combination of modern imaging methods explains Prof. Gunzer: ‘Many of these methods were used for the very first time by us such as so-called light-sheet fluorescence microscopy and ultra high-resolution 7 tesla (T) magnetic resonance imaging and x-ray microscopy in collaboration with the ERC Synergy Grant 4D-nanoSCOPE team under the leadership of Prof. Dr. Silke Christiansen and Prof. Dr. Georg Schett’.In future, studies are planned to investigate the role of trans-cortical vessels for normal bone remodeling and in conditions such as osteoporosis or tumors that metastasize in bones. The work at FAU was funded by collaborative research center 1181 as well as the ERC Synergy Grant 4D nanoSCOPE.Source: https://www.fau.eu/2019/01/25/news/research/discovery-of-blood-vessel-system-in-bones/last_img read more

Doctoral thesis focuses on the role of oxidative stress in Wolfram syndrome

first_img Source:Estonian Research Council Oxidative stress is the cause for concern primarily for those whose organism has more reactive species or whose antioxidant defense system is weaker. Deficient defense system may also result from the scarcity of certain vitamins.”Rando Porosk, doctoral candidate of the Institute of Biomedicine and Translational Medicine at the University of Tartu Related StoriesHealthy lifestyle lowers dementia risk despite genetic predispositionStudy reveals long-term benefits of stress urinary incontinence surgeryNew study identifies eight genetic variants associated with anorexia nervosaIn his doctoral thesis titled “The Role of Oxidative Stress in Wolfram Syndrome 1 and Hypothermia”, Porosk studied the role of oxidative stress in the case of mild hypothermia or reduced body temperature as well as rare Wolfram syndrome. The latter is caused by a wolframin gene defect which also causes diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optical nerve atrophy and neurodegenerative disorders. A person suffering from this syndrome has diabetes as well as he/she will be blind and deaf.According to the doctoral candidate, there is knowledge of Wolfram syndrome in the case of wolframin deficiency, as intracellular endoplasmic stress, as well as oxidative stress occurs. “We described the level of oxidative stress more profoundly than ever before in the model of mice suffering from Wolfram syndrome constructed by us and showed how the antioxidant UPF peptides designed by us decrease oxidative stress in various tissues.”In Porosk’s doctoral thesis, the animal model has been described better when compared with earlier ones. This animal model can now be used in further research for describing Wolfram syndrome. “Profound description of metabolism provides information for further studies on a protein with hitherto unknown biofunction which is also wolframin that causes Wolfram syndrome. This way, its biofunction can be described even more profoundly.”The mild hypothermia is used quite a lot in clinical practice for avoiding tissue damage. Right now, it is not exactly known what the protective hypothermia mechanism is about. “We showed in the research that mild hypothermia causes a stress response in various cell lines,” said Porosk in conclusion.center_img Reviewed by Kate Anderton, B.Sc. (Editor)May 29 2019In the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Tartu, the first animal testings were conducted using antioxidant peptides designed and synthesized by scientists in Tartu, which may reduce oxidative stress. Oxidative stress also develops with a rare incurable genetic disease called Wolfram syndrome and it is studied profoundly by scientists all over the world.Doctoral candidate of the Institute of Biomedicine and Translational Medicine at the University of Tartu, Rando Porosk, explained that oxidative stress is a condition where the reactive species, such as free radicals, dominate over the antioxidant defense system, and this may cause tissue damage as a result, for example.last_img read more

Enhancing the competitiveness of the railway sector

first_img Citation: Enhancing the competitiveness of the railway sector (2018, June 28) retrieved 18 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-06-competitiveness-railway-sector.html Enhancing the competitiveness and attractiveness of the railway sector – the core ambition of the Shift2Rail joint undertaking – requires other projects to clear the way. The ROLL2RAIL project played this role by focusing on novel rolling stock technologies and methodologies. Future trains should be more energy-efficient, lighter, more reliable, have more capacity, cost less over their life cycle, be connected and be more comfortable and attractive. Only then will the railway sector be able to raise its market share. Of course, getting there won’t be easy: there are many obstacles to such radical innovation, and technologies with the potential to rise to this challenge are only in their infancy. This is the context that saw the launch of ROLL2RAIL (New Dependable Rolling Stock for a More Sustainable, Intelligent and Comfortable Rail Transport in Europe), an EU-funded project aiming to develop key technologies and remove blocking points for radical innovation in the field of rolling stock. Being part of a wider long-term strategy to shape the rolling stock of the future and ensure suitable results for integration in Shift2Rail, the project addressed several sub-systems including traction, TCMS, carbody, running gear, brakes, interiors, noise and energy.”Traction systems have reached their maximum possible efficiency with current power electronics technology (silicon). Our goal was to reap all the benefits of incipient silicon carbide semiconductor technology to create smaller, lighter, more efficient and more reliable railway traction systems, while at the same time addressing low-floor wheel-motor assemblies for high-speed trains,” Mr Andrea Demadonna, coordinator of the project on behalf of UNIFE (The European Rail Industry Association), explains. “We also studied key aspects of performance such as noise emission or reliability/availability, along with possible technical standardisation that will lead to cost reductions.”In 30 months, ROLL2RAIL achieved a substantial reduction in the weight and volume of traction converters and motors, and produced calculations for motor cooling noise and specifications for a semi-conductor based on environmental conditions.Besides traction, the project led to numerous breakthroughs. The first is a Train Control & Management System (TCMS) that uses wireless technologies for train control and monitoring functions, thereby removing the need for onboard communication cables and simplifying the train coupling procedure. The second is a study on adhesive joints as well as on the reduction in weight linked to composite materials; and the third is a market push for running gear technologies and maintenance – in the form of a Europe-wide cost modelling methodology that can quantify the global impact of running gear performance on the economics of the whole railway system.That’s only the tip of the iceberg, as the project also resulted in the following: a set of reduced and harmonised requirements for a braking system to be used in future authorisation processes; a study of publicly available passenger surveys on train comfort and a weighted flexible scoring metric including 24 comfort features; three new noise separation methods (advanced transfer path analysis, beamforming and wave signature extraction) which were tested in real conditions; and an energy norms and standards application guide for KPI generation as well as a calculation methodology. Finally, the consortium developed a KPI tool to assess the impact/improvements of new developments against a baseline.”ROLL2RAIL results have been designed for use by Shift2Rail as the ultimate end-user. Their benefits will impact not only Innovation Programme 1 (Rolling Stock for passengers) but also advanced traffic management and control systems, infrastructure, freight and cross-cutting activities (CCA) such as noise and energy,” Demadonna says. “Shift2Rail will now continue the work we started, in a process that is only natural when considering that more than half of the ROLL2RAIL partners are also members of Shift2Rail.” Explore further Provided by CORDIScenter_img Credit: Denis Belitsky, Shutterstock Designing the future of rail travel This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more