The photosynthetic sea slug Elysia chlorotica appears like a dark green leaf as a result of retaining chloroplasts from its algal prey, Vaucheria litorea, in cells lining its digestive tract. Image credit: Mary S. Tyler/PNAS. (PhysOrg.com) — Scientists from the University of South Florida in Tampa have found a green sea slug is able to synthesize chlorophyll like a plant, which makes it the first animal known to be capable of the feat. Citation: Green sea slug makes chlorophyll like a plant (2010, January 12) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2010-01-green-sea-slug-chlorophyll.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. © 2010 PhysOrg.com Researcher Sidney K. Pierce said the super green sea slug, Elysia chlorotica, which lives in waters on the east coast of the USA and Canada, is known to steal genes and photosynthesizing organelles called chloroplasts from its favorite intertidal algae species, Vaucheria litorea, but it now seems it has developed an entire chemical pathway to manufacture the green pigment “chlorophyll a” itself.Chlorophyll is the pigment that captures energy from sunlight in photosynthesis. Pierce and his team used radioactive tracing techniques to determine the slugs were manufacturing the chlorophyll themselves and it did not originate in the algae they ate. A number of animals (such as corals) host microbes and algae and benefit from their photosynthesis, but in most of these associations the cells remain whole. In Elysia chlorotica, in contrast, the cells are broken down and chloroplasts are extracted and held inside the slug’s own cells, where they remain active for the slug’s lifetime of almost a year. Researchers have shown that once a young slug has eaten a meal of Vaucheria algae it never has to eat again as long as it has access to light and supplies of chlorophyll and other chemicals used in photosynthesis.In 2007 scientists, including Pierce and his team, found genes related to photosynthesis in the slugs, and these genes, apparently originally from the algae, were even found in unhatched slugs that had never eaten algae. In the latest research Pierce found more algal genes, and some of them were for enzymes required for the chemical process manufacturing chlorophyll. Pierce and his team studied slugs that had not eaten anything for at least five months and had stopped eliminating waste digestive products. They contained chloroplasts taken from the algae, but Pierce said that any other part of the algae should have long ago been digested. They gave the slug an amino acid labeled with radioactive carbon and found that the radioactive carbon turned up in the chlorophyll a molecule after the slugs had been sunbathing, but not if they had been in the dark.The findings were reported at the annual meeting of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology in Seattle, Washington on 7 January and will be published in the journal Symbiosis. Solar-powered sea-slugs live like plants, prof says Explore further
Android users get malware with their apps This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. (PhysOrg.com) — One of the best ways to edit your documents on your tablet PC has been to use a web-based service like Google Docs. Running Google Docs on an Android-based tablet lacks usability and has always been a mixed experience, depending on your Wi-Fi signal strength. Sometimes it worked well, and sometimes it did not. © 2010 PhysOrg.com The app is available in the Android App Marketplace. Just be aware that the app will not work with human handwriting, special fonts, or non-English languages. Though, this may change at some point in the future. Of course, for the business user sometimes is not really good enough. When you need the numbers from the quarterly spreadsheet right now having access to those numbers will be a big problem. When you need to look over the document that you have to review, spotty access is no good to you. What you need is an app that can help you to get more consistent, quality access to your documents for editing and sharing on the web.Lucky for you, Google has released an app for just that purpose. On Wednesday, Google announced the launch of an official Google Docs app for Android. The app is able to convert photos of text into text documents for use in either Google Docs or in your web browser, so that you can edit the documents. This technology, which allows you to convert a photo of text into editable text is not only potentially useful for the office, but could be used for a variety of different pranks. Of course, how you choose to use it is of no concern to this reporter, but opportunities abound. Explore further Citation: Google releases a doc scanning and editing app for Android (2011, April 29) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-04-google-doc-scanning-app-android.html
Conductive cotton ties in to a simple circuit. Photo: Cornell University Citation: Cotton computing goes live at Cornell textiles lab (2011, December 30) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-12-cotton-cornell-textiles-lab.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Transistors are made from natural cotton fibers Explore further More information: Organic electronics on natural cotton fibres, Organic Electronics, Volume 12, Issue 12, December 2011, Pages 2033-2039.AbstractNanoscale modification of natural cotton fibres with conformal coatings of gold nanoparticles, deposition of thin layers of the conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxithiophene) (PEDOT) and a combination of these two processes were employed to increase conductivity of plain cotton yarns. This innovative approach was especially designed to fabricate two classes of devices: passive devices such as resistors obtained from electrically conductive cotton yarns, and two types of active devices, namely organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) and organic field effect transistors (OFETs). The detailed electrical and mechanical analysis we performed on treated cotton yarns revealed that they can be used as conductors still maintaining a good flexibility. This study opens an avenue for real integration between organic electronics and traditional textile technology and materials. (PhysOrg.com) — Researchers from France, Italy and the United States are weaving cotton with transistors for a new look in computing. Based on news about a lab at Cornell University, wearable computing is getting a new twist. Transistors made from cotton fibers are being explored at the Textiles Nanotechnology Laboratory at Cornell for use as clothing to collect, monitor and relay information. © 2011 PhysOrg.com Envisioned end uses could take form as clothes measuring pollutants, firefighters’ uniforms detecting dangerous chemicals, T-shirts displaying information, medical purposed garments monitoring heart rates and perspiration, as well as carpets in commercial environments measuring allergens or humidity.The group has come up with transistors made from cotton fibers. They use an approach that departs from the practice of attaching sensors or processors to fully formed garments. Instead, they are incorporating their information-retrieving devices directly into the fabric. The Textiles Nanotechnology Laboratory focus is on merging textile science with the emerging area of nanoscale science. In their work to make the fibers conductive, the team coated each strand with gold nanoparticles and with an additional thin layer of PEDOT, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), a conductive polymer.The fibers proved to be about one thousand times as conductive as plain cotton, and had slightly stiffer but more elastic qualities than untreated fibers, said reports. The team demonstrated the cotton’s conductivity by making a simple circuit; they knotted one end to a battery and the other to a light emitting diode (LED).Overall, said Annalisa Bonfiglio, a professor in the department of electrical and electronic engineering, University of Cagliari, Italy, whose student Giorgio Mattana worked on the cotton at the Ithaca lab, treating the cotton with these various substances is not very complicated, comparable to dyeing materials.For the immediate future, she added, the most realistic application of their research may be for use as wearable sensors.Juan Hinestroza, director of the Textiles lab at Cornell, said “pretty decent computing power” can be the result if one considers how many fibers in a T-shirt, for example, and how many interconnections there are between the weft and warp of the fabric.His work has not gone unnoticed by those seeing potential in new ways to integrate electronics with traditional textiles. Hinestroza has received funding from federal and state agencies as well as industrial consortiums for his explorations in how to create multifunctional fibers using nanoscale phenomena.While wearable sensors is the most practical near-term application, the more distant future (or perhaps back to the future) might extend elsewhere. Earlier this year, Hinestroza said, “Perhaps one day we can even build computers out of cotton fibers in a similar way as khipus -a recording device based on knots and used by the Inca empire in Peru.”
(Phys.org)—Astronomers from the Paris Observatory in Meudon, France and the Notre Dame University – Louaize in Zouk Mosbeh, Lebanon, report that an A-type main-sequence star HR8844, could be a hybrid object between two classes of chemically peculiar stars. The discovery was detailed in a paper published Sept. 16 on arXiv.org. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. © 2016 Phys.org Citation: Chemically peculiar star HR8844 could be a hybrid object (2016, September 21) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2016-09-chemically-peculiar-star-hr8844-hybrid.html Previous studies described HR8844 as a slowly rotating, fairly bright (V=5.89), superficially normal A0V star. However, the latest research conducted by Richard Monier of the Paris Observatory and his colleagues sheds new light on the real nature of this star.According to the paper, the model atmosphere and spectrum synthesis modeling of the spectrum of HR8844 reveals that most of the light elements are under-abundant, while the very heavy elements are overabundant. That means the star should be reclassified as a chemically peculiar star.”The derived abundance pattern of HR8844 strongly departs from the solar composition, which definitely shows that HR8844 is not a superficially normal early A star, but is actually another new chemically peculiar star,” the researchers wrote in the paper.Chemically peculiar stars, like HR8844, are main-sequence A and B stars with unusually strong or weak lines for certain elements. Besides their chemical composition, they have magnetic fields and experience very slow rotation with an average velocity of 29 km/s, which leads to extremely sharp-lined spectra.The new findings are based on data provided by the SOPHIE high-resolution echelle spectrograph installed on the 1.93m reflector telescope at the Haute-Provence Observatory in southeastern France. The team has analyzed the SOPHIE dataset and found that HR8844 has under-abundances of light elements like helium (He), carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and oxygen (O) and overabundances of the iron-peak elements and of the very heavy elements such as strontium (Sr), yttrium (Y), zirconium (Zr) and mercury (Hg).Taking into account a mild overabundance of manganese (Mn), the scientists concluded that HR8844 could be a hybrid object between the HgMn stars and the Am stars. HgMn stars are characterized by abnormal metal overabundances of Hg and Mn, together with under-abundances of light elements like He. When it comes to Am stars, their spectrum showcases strong absorption lines of metals such as Sr and Zr.Thus, according to the team, HR8844 resembles both a very hot Am star and a very cool HgMn star. Therefore, the star was reclassified as a hybrid object intermediate between these two classes. “Most of the light elements are under-abundant, whereas the very heavy elements are overabundant in HR8844. This interesting new chemically peculiar star could be a hybrid object between the HgMn stars and the Am stars,” the paper reads.However, in order to precisely determine the class of HR8844, the researchers plan further observations of the star that would complement the recent study.”We are currently planning more observations of HR8844 with SOPHIE in order to complement the abundances derived here and search for line variability. This will help us address the relationship of HR8844 to the two other hot Am stars, Sirius A and HD72660 and constrain the nature of this interesting new chemically peculiar star,” the team wrote.Lately, Monier’s team was successful in redefining the status of HD 30963 star. That research and the new study are part of a broader project aiming to reclassify main-sequence stars in the northern hemisphere. The derived elemental abundances for HR8844. Credit: Monier et al., 2016. HD 30963 is a chemically peculiar star, study finds Explore further More information: HR8844: A new hot Am star? arXiv:1609.04915 [astro-ph.SR] arxiv.org/abs/1609.04915AbstractUsing one archival high dispersion high quality spectrum of HR8844 (A0V) obtained with the echelle spectrograph SOPHIE at Observatoire de Haute Provence, we show that this star is not a superficially normal A0V star as hitherto thought. The model atmosphere and spectrum synthesis modeling of the spectrum of HR8844 reveals large departures of its abundances from the solar composition. We report here on our first determinations of the elemental abundances of 41 elements in the atmosphere of HR8844. Most of the light elements are underabundant whereas the very heavy elements are overabundant in HR8844.This interesting new chemically peculiar star could be a hybrid object between the HgMn stars and the Am stars.
Journal information: Icarus (Phys.org)—A team of researchers with Purdue University has found evidence from lunar-mapping spacecraft that the moon may have large lava tubes that could conceivably be used to house astronauts and supplies. In their paper published in the journal Icarus, the team describes their study of data from NASA’s Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) twin spacecraft and outline the evidence for large lava tubes. Theoretical study suggests huge lava tubes could exist on moon © 2016 Phys.org Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Prior research here on Earth has shown that lava flowing across a surface can form a shell of sorts as it cools, and when the shell collapses, a hollowed-out underground space remains—geologists call them lava tubes. Examples have been found in Hawaii and Iceland. Now, the researchers at Purdue believe they have found evidence that such structures might exist just below the surface of the moon in some places as well.The evidence from GRAIL consists of very small variations in the moon’s gravitational pull, suggesting differences in density below the surface. There is also some evidence of skylights in photographs taken of the moon near the areas of the gravitational variations. Skylights are areas on the surface that occur when part of a lava tube collapses creating a window of sorts into the tube below. The team built a geology-based computer model using the data they had gathered from GRAIL and the photographs, along with other known information about lava tubes here on Earth and other features unique to the moon. The model then offered predictions regarding the possible existence of lava tubes below the surface of the moon and how big and stable they might be—the researchers reasoned that they could be much larger than those found on Earth due to less pressure from gravity.The model indicated that lava tubes were likely present and that they could be as wide as three miles across and still remain stable. Such a wide, long tube, the researchers note, might be an ideal form of shelter for future astronauts—they could live in the tubes along with all their gear free from the fear of being struck by space debris and the constant barrage of solar radiation. It would likely be easier to manage temperature control as well, making life less dangerous for future moon residents. More information: David M. Blair et al, The structural stability of lunar lava tubes, Icarus (2017). DOI: 10.1016/j.icarus.2016.10.008AbstractMounting evidence from the SELENE, LRO, and GRAIL spacecraft suggests the presence of vacant lava tubes under the surface of the Moon. GRAIL evidence, in particular, suggests that some may be more than a kilometer in width. Such large sublunarean structures would be of great benefit to future human exploration of the Moon, providing shelter from the harsh environment at the surface—but could empty lava tubes of this size be stable under lunar conditions? And what is the largest size at which they could remain structurally sound? We address these questions by creating elasto-plastic finite element models of lava tubes using the Abaqus modeling software and examining where there is local material failure in the tube’s roof. We assess the strength of the rock body using the Geological Strength Index method with values appropriate to the Moon, assign it a basaltic density derived from a modern re-analysis of lunar samples, and assume a 3:1 width-to-height ratio for the lava tube. Our results show that the stability of a lava tube depends on its width, its roof thickness, and whether the rock comprising the structure begins in a lithostatic or Poisson stress state. With a roof 2 m thick, lava tubes a kilometer or more in width can remain stable, supporting inferences from GRAIL observations. The theoretical maximum size of a lunar lava tube depends on a variety of factors, but given sufficient burial depth (500 m) and an initial lithostatic stress state, our results show that lava tubes up to 5 km wide may be able to remain structurally stable. Citation: Data from GRAIL spacecraft suggest moon may have large lava tubes (2016, December 19) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2016-12-grail-spacecraft-moon-large-lava.html Credit: CC0 Public Domain
This image shows the model of the tidally shredded Sagittarius dwarf galaxy wrapping around a 3-D representation of the Milky Way disk (flattened blue spiral). The yellow dot represents the position of the Sun. Credit: David R. Law/UCLA. (Phys.org)—An international team of astronomers has performed detailed measurements of the chemical composition of 158 red giant stars in the nearby Sagittarius dwarf galaxy. The study, presented in a paper published July 11 on arXiv.org, is so far the largest and most chemically extensive high-resolution survey of this galaxy. Citation: Astronomers measure detailed chemical abundances of 158 stars in a nearby dwarf galaxy (2017, July 17) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2017-07-astronomers-chemical-abundances-stars-nearby.html More information: APOGEE Chemical Abundances of the Sagittarius Dwarf Galaxy, arXiv:1707.03456 [astro-ph.GA] arxiv.org/abs/1707.03456AbstractThe Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) provides the opportunity to measure elemental abundances for C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni in vast numbers of stars. We analyze the chemical abundance patterns of these elements for 158 red giant stars belonging to the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy (Sgr). This is the largest sample of Sgr stars with detailed chemical abundances and the first time C, N, P, K, V, Cr, Co, and Ni have been studied at high-resolution in this galaxy. We find that the Sgr stars with [Fe/H] ≳ -0.8 are deficient in all elemental abundance ratios (expressed as [X/Fe]) relative to the Milky Way, suggesting that Sgr stars observed today were formed from gas that was less enriched by Type II SNe than stars formed in the Milky Way. By examining the relative deficiencies of the hydrostatic (O, Na, Mg, and Al) and explosive (Si, P, K, and Mn) elements, our analysis supports the argument that previous generations of Sgr stars were formed with a top-light IMF, one lacking the most massive stars that would normally pollute the ISM with the hydrostatic elements. We use a simple chemical evolution model, flexCE to further backup our claim and conclude that recent stellar generations of Fornax and the LMC could also have formed according to a top-light IMF. Farthest stars in Milky Way might be ripped from another galaxy Discovered in 1994, Sagittarius is a nearby, massive, elliptical loop-shaped satellite galaxy of the Milky Way. The dwarf is currently merging with our galaxy, resulting in massive tidal tails that can be found in the Galactic halo. Therefore, detailed studies of Sagittarius could clarify the formation of Milky Way’s halo. Due to its proximity (about 88,000 light years away), the stars in the core of this dwarf galaxy are excellent targets for high-resolution spectroscopy observations using ground-based telescopes.So a team of researchers led by Sten Hasselquist of the New Mexico State University recently conducted detailed spectroscopic observations of Sagittarius as part of the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment, or APOGEE. The main goal of this survey is to study over 100,000 red giant stars across the full range of the galactic bulge, bar, disk, and halo. APOGEE makes use of a high-resolution near-infrared spectrograph connected to the Sloan Foundation 2.5m Telescope at Apache Point Observatory in New Mexico in order to penetrate the dust that obscures significant fractions of the disk and bulge of our galaxy.Hasselquist and colleagues has used APOGEE’s spectrograph to estimate chemical composition of a large group of stars in Sagittarius. They managed to measure chemical abundances for the 16 elements, namely carbon (C), nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), sodium (Na), magnesium (Mg), aluminium (Al), silicon (Si), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), vanadium (V), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), cobalt (Co) and nickel (Ni).”The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment provides the opportunity to measure elemental abundances for C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni in vast numbers of stars. We analyze the chemical abundance patterns of these elements for 158 red giant stars belonging to the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy (Sgr),” the researchers wrote in the paper.These measurements revealed that Sagittarius is deficient, at various levels, in all the studied chemical-abundance ratios relative to iron. This indicates that the most recent generation stars in the dwarf galaxy with metallicity higher than -0.8 formed from gas that was much less polluted with Type II supernovae than the gas that formed stars in the Milky Way’s disk and bulge.”We find that the Sgr stars with [Fe/H] > -0.8 are deficient in all elemental abundance ratios (expressed as [X/Fe]) relative to the Milky Way, suggesting that Sgr stars observed today were formed from gas that was less enriched by Type II SNe than stars formed in the Milky Way,” the paper reads.The team also also found that asymptotic giant branch stars are much larger contributors to the chemical enrichment of Sagittarius when compared to our Milky Way galaxy.”We find clear signs of AGB enrichment beginning at [Fe/H] ∼ -0.6 in [(C+N)/Fe], [Na/Fe], and [Al/Fe], and that the abundance patterns of these elements approach the MW trend in the most metal-rich Sgr stars,” the authors noted. © 2017 Phys.org Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Arvind Kejriwal appreciated the festival and complimented the efforts of Delhi Tourism, in keeping the tradition of organizing this unique event alive from the past 27 years, which offers a delectable display of mango varieties under one roof.The 27th Mango Festival showcased over 500 varieties of mangoes, which were on display at the event. The various types of mangoes on display included Langra, Chausa, Amrapali,
The Japan Foundation presented FONTE for a jazz performance on Saturday at FICCI Auditorium in the national Capital. The independent administrative institution aims at promoting a greater awareness and appreciation of Japanese arts and cultures with a better understanding of culture, art and music through such functions. The event was conceptualised by Misako Futsuki, Director of Japan Foundation. FONTE is a Japanese music group who was joined by performers including Indian musicians Gaurav Mazumdar and Mohit Lal and Japanese musician Kiichiro Komobuchi. An audience of around 850 music lovers enjoyed the evening’s jazz performance to the fullest, as the six performing artists enthralled them. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’FONTE has three members, Masami Nakagawa, Kazuhiko Obata and Gennoshin Yasui since their inception. The Japanese Foundation has invited Komobuchi for bass as a special guest. FONTE had come together when Yasui was in Sao Paulo, Brazil and Nakagawa visited him. During this visit, they had a chance to perform with Filo Machado (VoG) there and after coming back to Japan, they wanted to have the great performance again together with the guitar player, Obata. That is how the group got together and started performing. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixWhen asked what Jazz meant to them, they said that Jazz is same as daily meal for them and that it is a global language (to communicate with people from all over the world). “We cannot survive without Jazz,” was the first-class reply. One of the group members, Yasui was based in Brazil, that is how Brazilian music caught their attention and dedication. FONTE aims to elaborate Brazilian music freely and playfully. To answer how they feel about Indian classical music, they said that, it is very different and Indian classical music has a very unique and long tradition, totally dissimilar from other musical genres. “Somehow it sounds very amorous or charming to us”, said the musicians. FONTE is hoping to have many chances to play around the world in the near future. The group was formed in 2004 and they released their first album, a live recording, titled ‘FONTE Live at Corcovado’. They spent a lot of time to record their second album, ‘Conforto’, whose theme was comfort, and was released in 2010, while recording of their third album, ‘ENERGIA’, started after the Great East Japan Earthquake.
Kolkata: Giving a clarion call to bring back transparency in the voting process, Trinamool Congress supremo Mamata Banerjee proposed to hold elections in the Panchayats and civic bodies using ballot papers, replacing the Electronic Voting Machines (EVMs).She was addressing the largest rally till date to commemorate Martyrs’ Day, at Esplanade on Sunday afternoon. Police had gunned down 13 Youth Congress supporters who took part in a rally demanding “No ID card no vote” on July 21, 1993. Trinamool has been observing the day as Martyrs’ Day since the inception of the party on January 1, 1998. Also Read – Rs 13,000 crore investment to provide 2 lakh jobs: Mamata”We will request the Election Commission to conduct elections in Panchayats, municipalities and corporations in ballot papers,” she said, adding: “BJP’s victory in 2019 Lok Sabha poll is a mystery and not history. USA and all the European countries have discarded EVMs and so our demand is justified. We will show the path.” It may be recalled that in the rallies before the general elections, Banerjee had repeatedly been vocal about the manipulation of EVMs. Many Opposition parties had echoed her voice but none had actually carried out any movement regarding the same. Also Read – Lightning kills 8, injures 16 in stateReferring to the cut money issue, she said: “BJP has misinterpreted what I had told my party men on the issue.” Coming down heavily on the saffron party, she raised the slogan ‘Return black money’ and instructed Trinamool workers to launch movements up to the block level, urging BJP to return black money. “I have evidence that BJP leaders had taken money for providing Ujala connections. Go back to your areas and launch movement urging BJP leaders to return the money which they had taken,” Banerjee said. She said Trinamool will organise rallies throughout the state, demanding that BJP should disclose the foreign funds which it had received before the general elections. “Indira Jaisingh’s residence was raided for receiving foreign funds worth Rs 90 lakh. But BJP has made law in such a way that it will not have to disclose the amount of foreign money it has received. Is it justified?” Banerjee questioned and added: “We have not received Rs 15 lakh in our accounts. We want BJP to return the black money it has received from different sources.” Referring to the deterioration of law and order situation in Bhatpara, she said: “This is the result of voting for BJP. There had not been any problem in Bhatpara in the past eight years. BJP is creating trouble everywhere. CPI(M)’s hoodlums who have joined BJP are now creating trouble in Khejuri and Keshpur.” Speaking about the “double standard” of BJP, the Trinamool supremo said: “In Uttar Pradesh Piyanka Gandhi and the Trinamool delegation led by Derek O’ Brien were not allowed to meet the family of the dalits who got killed a few days ago. In Assam, the Trinamool delegation which had gone to meet those whose names had been dropped from the NRC list, were not allowed to go out of the airport. However, a BJP delegation came from Delhi and met people in Bhatpara, flouting the prohibitory order under Section 144 CrPC.” Banerjee alleged that BJP is involved in horse trading in Bengal as well. “I was talking to one of our MLAS from North Bengal and he told me that BJP had proposed to give him Rs 2 crore and a petrol pump,” she said, adding: “People will shun them who will join BJP after taking money.” Cheering up the party workers assembled at the rally, she said: “There is nothing to worry. We have increased our vote percentage. Work seriously in your locality and build contacts with local people. Have faith in Trinamool and face any situation courageously and do not run away in case any trouble crops up.” “BJP will try out all means to scare us and harass us. But under no circumstance will we bow down to the party that has vitiated society,” she added. Meanwhile, she urged CPI(M) and Congress “not to take up self-destructive methods” and launch movement against BJP. “You do not have to support us. Put up a serious fight against the BJP,” she stated. Banerjee also announced the programmes which the party will undertake in the next few months.
The threat of tuberculosis is still strong in many people’s minds. “TB” has affected humanity throughout its history, and it wasn’t until the start of the 20th century that doctors understood how the disease was spread. As described on the website of PBS, “Victims suffered from hacking, bloody coughs, debilitating pain in their lungs, and fatigue.” The affliction cast a shadow over millions. At the start of the 19th century a reported one in seven were dying from it.Public health campaigns in the 1920s tried to halt the spread of TB.Germ theory first entered public debate during the late 1800s, via figures such as chemist Louis Pasteur. Physician Robert Koch’s “tubercule baccilum” pushed Mankind further toward enlightenment, though it took some years to catch on.When the idea of bacteria and contagion was finally established, it replaced old notions of the condition being hereditary.Robert Koch discovered the tuberculosis bacillus.The presence of germs ushered in greater hygiene, and a concerted effort in countries like America to promote a new standard of healthy living. So while TB was a terrible thing, it also had an effect on modern society for the better.One small but significant impact on the male population was the removal of beards. Facial hair has all manner of importance to a man’s psyche, from religious conviction to simply wanting to look rugged.An iconic photograph of a bearded Abraham Lincoln showing his head and shoulders.However, tuberculosis cared not for these beliefs and conventions, playing havoc with furry chins in the Land of the Free. The clean-shaven look became essential, yet prior to that, the beard was seen as a protector from disease rather than its incubator.The Museum of Healthcare site writes that, in 1881, “Dr. Tom Robinson, an English physician… encourages men to grow facial hair to help prevent illness. According to Robinson, who drew on medical literature dating back to the Renaissance… medical conditions such as loose and sore teeth, nasal catarrh… and facial neuralgia… could all be prevented.”Before Germ Theory was widely accepted, people thought that a beard could protect it’s wearer from harmful particles in the air.While it seems ridiculous now, before Pasteur and Koch’s research was announced, a beard possessed qualities that positioned it as a kind of health shield for the face.The piece goes on to say, “soldiers with facial hair were less likely to be admitted to hospital with respiratory ailments such as bronchitis because it was believed that the hair could sift out harmful particles in the air.”Civil war soldiers with beards.By the beginnings of the 20th century, that baby was being thrown out the window, along with the infected bathwater. In North America the “contamination of milk supplies in New York became an international headline when it was argued that facial hair could harbor farmyard dirt or tuberculosis, which could then end up in the milk.”A rule was put in place whereby “only clean-shaven men would be allowed to milk cows and deliver their product to distribution centers.” From there the sight of a beard became unwholesome, and not only that but a danger to human life.Roland Richer (VSer) shaving Grandpa Abe Mast, 96 years old.Within decades the government’s message of fresh air and germ awareness, combined with antibiotics development, had taken the fight to TB and won.Intriguingly, this plague led to the expansion of American culture, as people wanting to escape TB set up home along the railroad. Their endeavors saw the construction of cities, together with an embracing of the outdoors life as a bedrock of public health.As PBS summarizes, “The acceptance of tuberculosis as a contagion had a huge impact on American society, not only in medicine and public health policy, but also in recreation, city planning, and even popular fashion.”Read another story from us: Men in Russia used to be Taxed for Growing a BeardThe beard emerged from the devastation and has recurred as a fashionable adornment over the decades. But arguably its reputation was damaged forever after its run in with tuberculosis.If Mankind has become less whiskery as a result, then surely that is a small price to pay.