Bravura Holdings Limited ( 2017 Abridged Report

first_imgBravura Holdings Limited ( listed on the Stock Exchange of Mauritius under the Financial sector has released it’s 2017 abridged results.For more information about Bravura Holdings Limited ( reports, abridged reports, interim earnings results and earnings presentations, visit the Bravura Holdings Limited ( company page on AfricanFinancials.Document: Bravura Holdings Limited (  2017 abridged results.Company ProfileBravura Holdings Limited (formerly CMB International) is an investment holding bank situated in Ebene, Mauritius, and invests in Sub-Saharan African markets, with particular attention on Mozambique and Zambia. Whilst the company is a subsidiary of Capital Markets Brokers, the latter is a leading shareholder of the Stock Exchange of Mauritius since its establishment in 1989. The company disseminates its services through its subsidiaries offering financial services, financial advisory, investment banking for businesses and for entities that have focused their investments in financial instruments, including derivatives and equity. Bravura Holdings Limited is listed on the Stock Exchange of Mauritius.last_img read more

It’s Wales vs England as Andy Powell challenges retiring international to a fight for charity

first_imgFriday May 24, 2019 It’s Wales vs England as Andy Powell challenges retiring international to a fight for charity Former Wales international Andy Powell has taken to Twitter to challenge retiring England international James Haskell to a charity boxing match.ADVERTISEMENTThe former number eight challenged Haskell to the match at Gloucester’s Kingsholm Stadium in six month’s time, with the aim to “raise lots of money for some charities”.Powell was known throughout his career as an enforcer on the field, who would never shy away from confrontation. The personality he had on the pitch may lend itself to a boxing ring, and could make this very entertaining.Meanwhile, fellow back-row Haskell, who has already played his last game of professional rugby for the Northampton Saints, does not seem like one to turn down a match up like this.Both players were British and Irish Lions tourists, Powell in 2009 and Haskell in 2017, and would line up against one another fairly evenly. Standing at 6ft 6, Powell would have a two inch height advantage, but Haskell would probably be the heavier of the two.WATCH: Andy Powell’s huge hit on Duane Vermeulen This would be a chance for both players to renew one of rugby’s oldest rivalries, Wales vs England, and has already got some of their former teammates excited.ADVERTISEMENTPowell and Haskell are two of the biggest characters the game has had in recent years, and this would surely attract a lot of attention from English and Welsh fans.Haskell, who has spoken about MMA training in the past, unleashed a few punches against the Cheetahs when he played in Super Rugby in 2012. If the charity fight goes ahead, he’ll no doubt be constantly referencing this video in the build up.ADVERTISEMENT Posted By: rugbydump Share Send Thanks Sorry there has been an error See it to Believe it Related Articles 25 WEEKS AGO WATCH: Experts explain what actually happens… 26 WEEKS AGO WATCH: Leigh Halfpenny makes yet another… 26 WEEKS AGO Parisse alley-oop magic sets up brilliant… From the WebThis Video Will Soon Be Banned. Watch Before It’s DeletedSecrets RevealedYou Won’t Believe What the World’s Most Beautiful Girl Looks Like TodayNueeyUrologists Stunned: Forget the Blue Pill, This “Fixes” Your EDSmart Life ReportsWrinkle Remedy Stuns TV Judges: Forget Surgery, Do This Once DailySmart Life ReportsIf You Have Ringing Ears Do This Immediately (Ends Tinnitus)Healthier Living30+ Everyday Items With A Secret Hidden PurposeNueeyThe content you see here is paid for by the advertiser or content provider whose link you click on, and is recommended to you by Revcontent. As the leading platform for native advertising and content recommendation, Revcontent uses interest based targeting to select content that we think will be of particular interest to you. We encourage you to view your opt out options in Revcontent’s Privacy PolicyWant your content to appear on sites like this?Increase Your Engagement Now!Want to report this publisher’s content as misinformation?Submit a ReportGot it, thanks!Remove Content Link?Please choose a reason below:Fake NewsMisleadingNot InterestedOffensiveRepetitiveSubmitCancellast_img read more

GC House / FCC Arquitectura

first_imgArchitects: FCC Arquitectura Area Area of this architecture project Year:  GC House / FCC Arquitectura ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOr Clipboard Lead Architects: GC House / FCC ArquitecturaSave this projectSaveGC House / FCC Arquitectura “COPY” CopyHouses, House Interiors, Extension•Porto, Portugal “COPY” Portugal 2019 Area:  8912 ft² Year Completion year of this architecture project Fernando Coelho, Ana Loureirocenter_img CopyAbout this officeFCC ArquitecturaOfficeFollowProductsGlassConcrete#TagsProjectsBuilt ProjectsSelected ProjectsResidential ArchitectureHousesRefurbishmentInterior DesignResidential InteriorsHouse InteriorsExtensionPortoResidential ArchitecturePortugalPublished on August 11, 2020Cite: “GC House / FCC Arquitectura” [Casa GC / FCC Arquitectura] 11 Aug 2020. ArchDaily. Accessed 10 Jun 2021. ISSN 0719-8884Browse the CatalogAluminium CompositesTechnowoodHow to Design a Façade with AluProfile Vertical ProfilesGlassMitrexSolar GreenhouseMetal PanelsAurubisOxidized Copper: Nordic BrownDoorsEGGERWood Laminate Doors in Molecular Plant Science InstituteStonesCosentinoSurfaces – Silestone® Nebula SeriesWall / Ceiling LightsLouis PoulsenLamp – LP RiplsWood Boards / HPL PanelsBruagRoom Dividers – Partition Wall MDFStonesNeolithSintered Stone – Mar del PlataWindowspanoramah!®ah! SecurityPanels / Prefabricated AssembliesULMA Architectural SolutionsMIS Facade PanelCarpetsFabromont AGTextile Floor Covering – Orbital® 07 COLORpunkt®LightsNorka lightingLuminaire – BelfastMore products »Save世界上最受欢迎的建筑网站现已推出你的母语版本!想浏览ArchDaily中国吗?是否翻译成中文现有为你所在地区特制的网站?想浏览ArchDaily中国吗?Take me there »✖You’ve started following your first account!Did you know?You’ll now receive updates based on what you follow! Personalize your stream and start following your favorite authors, offices and users.Go to my stream Photographs Projects Manufacturers: AutoDesk, Geberit, panoramah!®, Bisazza, MCMURTA, Adobe Systems Incorporated, CS Telhas, Roca, Stone Depot Products used in this ProjectWindowspanoramah!®ah! Vertical SlidingDesign Team:Fernando Coelho, Ana Loureiro, Sérgio Silva, Luís Vieira, Diana TeixeiraEngineering:Engiwords – Consultores de engenhariaConstructor:NVE – Engenharia e ConstruçãoImplantation Area:4639 ft2Site Area:10365 ft2City:PortoCountry:PortugalMore SpecsLess SpecsSave this picture!© Fernando Guerra | FG+SGText description provided by the architects. Starting from the existing building, the project foresees its conservation, alteration and necessary expansion to respond to the intended program; the first purpose will be to protect and enhance the building, as well as the surrounding garden. Demolition of part of the building in the far northeast is expected, keeping the volume on the face of Padre Luís Cabral street.Save this picture!© Fernando Guerra | FG+SGSave this picture!Plan – Ground floorSave this picture!© Fernando Guerra | FG+SGWe seek a solution that safeguards and enhances the identity of the former construction, promoting dialogue between old and new elements, acknowledging differences between both; looking for a contemporary result organically balanced framework that fits into the surrounding environment and contributing to leveraging the location. It was decided to confer neutrality to the expanded volume, built in exposed concrete, with glass panels, coated punctually with white lath.Save this picture!© Fernando Guerra | FG+SGSave this picture!Plan – 1st floorSave this picture!© Fernando Guerra | FG+SGThe existing construction is adapted to a contemporary housing program with specific requirements, requalifying the interior spaces and connecting them to the new spaces. The intention is to renew without deranging, looking to dignify the building without resorting to mimicry and promoting enriching features that go with the grain of a contemporaneous intervention.Save this picture!© Fernando Guerra | FG+SGSave this picture!© Fernando Guerra | FG+SGConsidering that Rua Padre Luís Cabral is currently poorly defined and consolidated in terms of the urban context, it was decided to implement the enlargement on this front, maintaining the elevation of the existing ancillary volume at the end of the building and extending it along the street, towards the existing house.The expansion finishes the urban front of this street and at the same time enhances the backyard (garden space with pool) as outdoor leisure space.Save this picture!© Fernando Guerra | FG+SGSave this picture!Section CSave this picture!© Fernando Guerra | FG+SGProject gallerySee allShow lessFrom Machine Sentience to Designing New Environments: 6 Young Practices in EuropeArticlesPeter Eisenman: Architect, Theorist and Educator Marked by DeconstructivismArchitecture News Share Photographs:  Fernando Guerra | FG+SG Manufacturers Brands with products used in this architecture project Products translation missing: ArchDaily ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOr Clipboard Save this picture!© Fernando Guerra | FG+SG+ 50Curated by Matheus Pereira Share Houseslast_img read more

Documents unsealed for FBI raids on solidarity activists

first_imgSign at Milwaukee protest, January 2012.WW photo: Bryan G. PfeiferThe following is a statement issued by The Committee to Stop FBI Repression on the release of FBI documents which reveal a McCarthyite-like attack on free speech and the right to organize. The committee has been defending movement activists targeted by FBI raids starting in September 2010, and also defending other political prisoners. For more information, go to   On Feb. 26, the application and affidavit used to obtain the search warrants for the 2010 raids on homes and offices of anti-war and international solidarity activists were unsealed, revealing lies and attacks on the constitutionally protected rights to speak out and organize. The unsealing of these documents came as a result of legal action taken by the anti-war activists.The timeline in the documents shows what we have always stated. Shortly before the huge protest at the Republican National Convention, an undercover police agent and professional liar, going by the name of Karen Sullivan (identified in the affidavit as UC1), joined the Anti-War Committee and became active in the efforts to build the demonstration. She later joined Freedom Road Socialist Organization.The documents demonstrate a callous disregard for free speech and the right to associate. They in effect criminalize those of us who oppose U.S. wars and stand in solidarity with the oppressed. From Palestine to Colombia, people want to be free from the domination of Washington, D.C. We have said this publicly on thousands of occasions and will continue to do so.Not unlike countless “anti-terrorism” cases against Arabs and Muslims, the affidavit contains a collection of lies and out-of-context statements to try to isolate people from their communities and movements. In a McCarthyite return to the 1950s, the affidavit shows an obsession with Freedom Road Socialist Organization. After decades working in the anti-war movement, anyone who has worked with us knows we are proud to be fighters in the struggles against war, and for justice and economic equality. The documents imply that is something sinister, when really, it is commendable.Having just received these documents, we are in the process of consulting with attorneys and we will have more to say in coming days.We are glad we forced the government to unseal these documents and we demand that the U.S. Attorney make a public statement that the investigation is closed and that there will be no indictments of anti-war and international solidarity activists. Moreover, we demand an end to repression and spying against the people’s movements.FacebookTwitterWhatsAppEmailPrintMoreShare thisFacebookTwitterWhatsAppEmailPrintMoreShare thislast_img read more

Detroiters confront corporate looters

first_imgWhat the system calls looting — maybe grabbing some groceries or a winter coat from a store during a rebellion — can land a person in jail. Looting by the banksters and their servile attorneys is another story. Try stealing a museum, a city park, a water department and the earned pensions of city workers. In Detroit you’ll be the toast of the town, although you might have to run a gauntlet of protesters.On Oct. 13 more than 100 Detroiters, including a large contingent of city retirees, picketed outside the Detroit Institute of Arts. Inside, the city’s elite were celebrating the opening of an office of the Jones Day corporate law firm in Detroit.Jones Day was hired by the firm’s own employee, governor-appointed Emergency Manager Kevyn Orr, to “represent” Detroit in federal bankruptcy court. What Orr and Jones Day did, in collusion with Bankruptcy Judge Steven Rhodes, was to construct a “Grand Bargain” to loot pensions and steal city assets. The deal imposed drastic pension cuts on city retirees and cancelled their health insurance, gave the city-owned Detroit Institute of Arts to a consortium of “philanthropists,” and turned the treasured Belle Isle city park into a state park requiring an entrance fee.At Orr’s initiative, Detroit Water and Sewerage Department shut off service to tens of thousands of Detroiters. DWSD is slated to be sold to a suburban-dominated regional water authority and potentially privatized — possibly by the Veolia Corp., which already has a consultancy contract with the new water authority.Jones Day was paid $53 million in fees from the city treasury for a year of aiding and abetting the corporate looters. Meanwhile, Detroiters are still on the hook for hundreds of millions of dollars in interest payments to some of the world’s biggest banks, the result of fraudulent interest-rate swap deals.The protesters put up a picket line that occupied the turnaround used for dropping people off and valet parking. As a result, valets under police protection had to greet gala attendees at the curb and escort them through a gauntlet of protesters, who loudly confronted each of the millionaires with chants of “Shame” and “Looters, liars, and thieves.” The loudest voices were those of retirees. Protesters swarmed the easily recognizable Orr, following him until he was whisked inside.The DIA is home to famous auto industry murals painted by the revolutionary Mexican artist Diego Rivera. One of the chants was, “What would Diego Rivera do? Tell Jones Day, the hell with you.”The protest was called by Moratorium Now! Coalition to Stop Foreclosures, Evictions and Utility Shutoffs.FacebookTwitterWhatsAppEmailPrintMoreShare thisFacebookTwitterWhatsAppEmailPrintMoreShare thislast_img read more

On no evidence, court confirms three-year term for Chechen journalist

first_img Receive email alerts Listed as a “foreign agent”, Russia’s most popular independent website risks disappearing RussiaEurope – Central Asia Condemning abuses Judicial harassmentImpunityPredatorsImprisonedFreedom of expressionCouncil of EuropeInternet “There are no grounds for convicting Zhalaudi Geriyev aside from a desire to punish him for his journalistic activities,” said Johann Bihr, the head of RSF’s Eastern Europe and Central Asia desk. Two Russian journalists persecuted for investigating police corruption Organisation May 5, 2021 Find out more As in the original trial, the supreme court was given no evidence to support the charge aside from the “confession” that Geriyev made under duress at the time of his arrest and immediately retracted. Geriyev told the court that his abductors took him to a wood where they beat him, tortured him and interrogated him. They then confiscated his backpack and took him to a cemetery in the village of Kurchaloi, where they finally extracted his “confession” and placed him under arrest. The complete impunity with which well-known journalist and human rights defender Natalya Estemirova was murdered in 2009 reinforced the climate of fear that reigns in the region, one that RSF has described in several reports, most recently in 2011. Russia is ranked 148th out of 180 countries in RSF’s 2016 World Press Freedom Index. A contributor to the independent news website Kavkazsky Uzel, Geriyev was alleged to have been possession of more than 150 grams of cannabis that he was about to smoke. But the case was riddled with contradictions and procedural violations. to go further Geriyev’s complaints about his mistreatment were dismissed three times without any action being taken. His lawyer, Alaudi Musayev, has announced his intention to refer the case to the European Court of Human Rights. Independent journalism has been almost completely eradicated in Chechnya, an autonomous Russian republic that was traumatized by two bloody wars and has been ruled with an iron hand by Kadyrov since 2007. News The court systematically ignored defence testimony confirming that three plainclothesmen kidnapped Geriyev from a minibus that was taking him to the Chechen capital, Grozny, from where he had planned to travel to Moscow for work-related reasons. RussiaEurope – Central Asia Condemning abuses Judicial harassmentImpunityPredatorsImprisonedFreedom of expressionCouncil of EuropeInternet “We again call on the authorities to redress this injustice and quash his conviction without delay. It is high time that the international community remembered Chechnya, which is defenceless against Ramzan Kadyrov’s endless crackdown.” Kadyrov often describes independent journalists and members of Russia’s liberal opposition as “traitors” and “enemies of the people.” Any remaining journalist who nowadays dares to defy the official consensus and obligatory pro-government enthusiasm is warned or threatened, and pressure is put on relatives. Harassment of critics has intensified in the past year. The least comment on social networks is now liable to have dire consequences. News June 2, 2021 Find out more News News December 29, 2016 On no evidence, court confirms three-year term for Chechen journalist Russian media boss drops the pretence and defends Belarus crackdown Follow the news on Russia RSF_en Facebook May 21, 2021 Find out more Reporters Without Borders (RSF) deplores yesterday’s decision by Chechnya’s supreme court to confirm the three-year jail sentence that the young journalist Zhalaudi Geriyev received from the Shali district court in September on a clearly trumped-up charge of drug possession. Help by sharing this information last_img read more

PERRYMAN: Few people are directly affected by the shutdown for now

first_img Pinterest PERRYMAN: Few people are directly affected by the shutdown for now By admin – January 6, 2018 Facebook Facebook WhatsApp Ray Perryman is the head of The Perryman Group and serves as a distinguished professor at the International Institute for Advanced Studies. As 2019 begins, the federal government remains partially shut down. Proposals are still surfacing and meetings are still being arranged, but as I write this it looks like it could go on for a while (by the time this is printed, it could all be over). One of the central points of disagreement is funding for the border wall, which is a highly controversial sticking point. It will be difficult to reach an agreement, and the longer the shutdown goes on, the more the economic costs will mount.Even if the shutdown has already ended by the time you’re reading this, it has once again highlighted a very serious problem in our federal government: an inability to agree on a budget (or much of anything else). It’s not the first time we’ve been here, and it won’t be the last. Maintaining basic budget authority to keep the doors open should not be that difficult, and the repeated failures are symptomatic of a lack of ability to tackle many more complex and important problems.The shutdown is a tremendous hardship to many of the 800,000 people and their families who are directly affected. They are either working without pay if their jobs are considered essential (such as airport security staff) or on leave without pay. Even though they will probably be compensated when the situation is resolved, the human cost is very real particularly given the timing.If the shutdown ends soon, it will be little more than an inconvenience for the vast majority of Americans. Apart from the workers furloughed or persons directly in need of services affected by the shutdown, the fallout for most individuals will probably be minimal. The employees who are furloughed will likely end up compensated for their time when things shake out; in any case, the consumer spending effects of 800,000 people for a few days given the size of the United States economy are relatively small.If the shutdown continues, however, effects will begin to compound. Closed offices negatively affect nearby businesses such as restaurants. Furloughed agencies slow processes such as small business loans. Over time, the issues will become bigger and the costs will rise. The associated uncertainty can also reduce or delay private investment decisions and add to market volatility.Essential functions are still going on and few people are directly affected by the shutdown. At the same time, however, the issue is larger than simply closing doors on some museums and monuments and falling a few more days behind on paperwork. The fact remains that at some point in time, Congress and the administration must work together to deal with budget issues and other, more significant, points of contention. Twitter Twitter Pinterest Previous articlePetition drive proceeds after threatNext articleDRILLING REPORT:Dec. 28 through Jan. 2 admin WhatsApp Local NewsBusinesslast_img read more

Odessa police charge man in connection with aggravated assault investigation

first_img WhatsApp Jonathan Chavez Odessa police charged a man Thursday who reportedly punched his girlfriend several times and threatened to kill her.Police were called on Dec. 6 to High Plains Apartments, 3727 Andrews Highway, about a domestic disturbance, according to an OPD news release.Upon arrival, officers made contact with a 20-year-old woman, who told police she had been assaulted by her boyfriend, 20-year-old Jonathan Chavez.The release detailed that the two had gotten into an argument, and Chavez reportedly punched the victim several times before grabbing her by the neck, placing a knife to her throat and telling her he would kill her.As the victim was running away, Chavez reportedly threw a metal multi-tool at her, striking her in the head, the release stated.Chavez then fled the scene before police arrived, the release said, and the victim was taken to Medical Center Hospital with serious bodily injury to her neck, chin, lips and forehead.A warrant was obtained for Chavez and he was charged Thursday with aggravated assault with a deadly weapon, a first-degree felony.Jail records show Chavez was taken to the Ector County Detention Center Friday and has no bond set yet. Twitter WhatsApp By admin – February 2, 2018 Facebook Pinterest Odessa police charge man in connection with aggravated assault investigation Pinterest Previous articleFive things you need to know today, Feb. 2Next articleDAILY OIL PRICE: Feb. 2 admin Facebook Local NewsCrime Twitterlast_img read more

‘Revealing Identity Of Covid Patients Will Definitely Lead To Social Stigma’: Madras HC [Read Order]

first_imgNews Updates’Revealing Identity Of Covid Patients Will Definitely Lead To Social Stigma’: Madras HC [Read Order] Akshita Saxena30 April 2020 7:15 AMShare This – xThe Madras High Court recently dismissed a writ petition seeking to reveal the identity of the COVID-19 affected persons. Holding that the same may further aggravate the “social stigma” being attached to the victims of COVID-19 due to the disease’s infectious nature, a division bench comprising of Justice M. Sathyanarayanan and Justice M. Nirmal Kumar disposed of the…Your free access to Live Law has expiredTo read the article, get a premium account.Your Subscription Supports Independent JournalismSubscription starts from ₹ 599+GST (For 6 Months)View PlansPremium account gives you:Unlimited access to Live Law Archives, Weekly/Monthly Digest, Exclusive Notifications, Comments.Reading experience of Ad Free Version, Petition Copies, Judgement/Order Copies.Subscribe NowAlready a subscriber?LoginThe Madras High Court recently dismissed a writ petition seeking to reveal the identity of the COVID-19 affected persons. Holding that the same may further aggravate the “social stigma” being attached to the victims of COVID-19 due to the disease’s infectious nature, a division bench comprising of Justice M. Sathyanarayanan and Justice M. Nirmal Kumar disposed of the petition. “This Court can take judicial notice of the fact on account of the revealing of the identity of the person/persons, there would be definitely a social stigma and aspersions on account of the same…” the bench held. Reliance was placed on the instructions issued by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare on ‘Social Stigma Associated with COVID-19’, urging the citizenry to fend off such prejudices against the affected population. The Petitioner had argued that if the identity of COVID patients is revealed, the same may enable others, who have come in contact with such persons, to Quarantine themselves and will thus aid in preventing the speared of the disease further. “On account of the concealment of identity of persons, who developed infection, on account of COVID-19, there may be a possibility the said person may pass on the infection, to other persons and if they lack immune, it would definitely spread and there is every likelihood that they would spread the virus, to other persons. Therefore the petitioner prays for appropriate direction, directing the Government to publish the name of the persons, who are infected with COVID-19 in the website so that it may act as a warning for caution to the persons to keep away from him/them,” the Petitioner had argued. Notwithstanding these arguments, the court held that the relief sought by the Petitioner could not be granted from a law and order point of view. “The people are slowly becoming aware of the effect of COVID-19 virus and if the prayer sought for by the petitioner is granted, it would further lead to law and order and public order problem, apart from the social stigma, some times may lead to excommunication also,” the bench said. Recently, the burial of a doctor who succumbed to a heart attack after contracting the COVID infection invited mass opposition, creating a law and order situation. Commenting upon that incident the bench said, “This Court can take judicial notice of the fact on account of the revealing of the identity of the person/persons, there would be definitely a social stigma and aspersions on account of the same and yesterday when a body of a Doctor, who died on account of COVID-19 complication, sought to be buried there was a law and order and public order problem, which resulted in attacking of ambulance driver, paramedical personnels as well as public servants and the mortal remains of the dead persons were compelled to be buried somewhere else.” Pertinently, a division bench of the High Court took suo moto cognizance of the incident and issued notice to the state on the issue of the right to burial being guaranteed under Article 21. Case Details: Case Title: K. Narayanan v. Govt. of Tamil Nadu Case No.: WP No. 7494/2020 Quorum: Justice M. Sathyanarayanan and Justice M. Nirmal Kumar Appearance: Advocate S. Lakshmanasamy (for Petitioner); Government Pleader V. Jayaprakash Narayanan (for State) Click Here To Download Order Read Order Next Storylast_img read more

Reservation In Promotion – A perspective

first_imgColumnsReservation In Promotion – A perspective Nidhesh Gupta, Senior Advocate22 May 2020 1:22 AMShare This – xThe casteless outcastes of Indian society, subjected for centuries to unfathomable social suppression and economic depravity have been compiled together as the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (hereinafter “SC/ST”) under the Constitution. Their plight has been described in various ways. Rabindranath Tagore described it as a “gigantic cold-blooded repression”. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar…Your free access to Live Law has expiredTo read the article, get a premium account.Your Subscription Supports Independent JournalismSubscription starts from ₹ 599+GST (For 6 Months)View PlansPremium account gives you:Unlimited access to Live Law Archives, Weekly/Monthly Digest, Exclusive Notifications, Comments.Reading experience of Ad Free Version, Petition Copies, Judgement/Order Copies.Subscribe NowAlready a subscriber?LoginThe casteless outcastes of Indian society, subjected for centuries to unfathomable social suppression and economic depravity have been compiled together as the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (hereinafter “SC/ST”) under the Constitution. Their plight has been described in various ways. Rabindranath Tagore described it as a “gigantic cold-blooded repression”. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar termed it as a system of “graded inequality”. Swami Vivekananda spoke for Shudra Raj and questioned the heredity claims of the Brahmanas, while calling out to “Arise, awake and stop not till the goal is reached”. To ameliorate the lot of these SC/ST’s reservation in promotion has been provided for. The issue can be broadly classified in two categories, namely, the pre and post Indra Sawhney (1992) eras. The pre Indra Sawhney era. Contrary to popular perception, reservation in matters of promotion was upheld by the Supreme Court even prior to the introduction of the 77th and 85th Constitutional Amendments. Article 16(4) permits the State to make any provision for reservation of appointment of posts in favour of any backward class of citizens which, in the opinion of the State, “is not adequately represented in the services under the State”. Although, the expression used in the aforesaid sub-clause (4) was “reservation of appointments or posts” and not “promotion”, the Supreme Court consistently interpreted the said provision as permitting reservation in matters of promotion as well. So, in Rangachari (1962), Justice Gajendragadkar upheld reservation at the promotion tier for selection posts. It was opined that “adequately represented” encompassed “size” as well as “values”. The numerical and qualitative tests were both to be applied to determine adequacy and the State could, therefore, take the view that a certain percentage of selection posts should also be reserved, the adequacy of such representation being considered qualitatively. After about 20 years, a prayer was made in Karamchari Sangh (1981) that Rangachari required to be reconsidered. In rejecting the said prayer, Justice Krishna Iyer said that a “Constitutional proposition on which a whole nation directs its destiny are not like Olympic records to be periodically challenged and broken by fresh exercises…….”. Justice Iyer felt that real power could be shared by the weakest sections only if the doors of the higher desks were opened to them. The higher echelons are the real controllerates and not just the menial levels. Further, Article 16(4) was not meant for Harijans to only become scavengers and sweepers, but officers as well. In the interregnum, a Bench of seven Judges had in N.M. Thomas (1976) also upheld the said view. Indra Sawhney (1992) – The erroneous rationale: After noticing that Rangachari had held the field for about 30 years, Justice Reddy placed reliance on the observation in Rangachari that there was “the risk” involved in sacrificing efficiency of administration. Therefore, the 9 Judge Bench in Indra Sawhney took the view that there was no justification to multiply “the risk” which would be the consequence of holding that reservation can be provided in matters of promotion. It is submitted that the observation in Rangachari was in the context of Article 335 and the obligation of the State to consider the claims of the backward classes consistently with the maintenance of the efficiency of administration. Rangachari only required that “the risk involved in sacrificing the efficiency of administration must always be borne in mind when any State sets about making a provision for reservation of appointments or posts.” The said observation is the mandate set out under Article 335 of the Constitution and ought not to have been the basis for negating the law as it stood for over three decades. Further, Indra Sawhney went on to permit reservation in matters of direct recruitment even in higher levels of administration and not merely at the level of Class III and Class IV. The said view begged the question that if reservation by way of direct recruitment was permissible for Class I and Class II posts, then why not by way of promotion? The 77th Constitutional Amendment (1995) and the 85th Constitutional Amendment (2001) Indra Sawhney upheld reservations already made and while holding that it’s aforesaid decision of striking down reservations shall operate only prospectively, it also permitted reservations which had already been provided in matters of promotion to continue to operate for a period of five years from that date. In the intervening period, Article 16(4A) was introduced by way of the 77th Constitutional Amendment w.e.f. 17.6.1995 and reservation in promotion was bought back. Consequential seniority was also provided by way of the 85th Constitutional Amendment given effect from 17.6.1995. The said amendments became the subject matter of challenge before the Constitution Bench in Nagaraj (2006). The amendments were upheld but with the additional mandate that the State will have to show the existence backwardness, inadequacy of representation and overall administrative efficiency before making provision for reservation in promotions. While Indra Sawhney required that the State can utilise the material it already had in it’s possession, Nagaraj laid down that the State “has to collect” quantifiable data. This was subsequently interpreted by the Supreme Court to mean that a fresh exercise had to be carried out to collect quantifiable data to determine inadequacy of representation. This is contrary to Indra Sawhney as explained hereinafter. The requirement of establishing backwardness of SC’s and ST’s has been struck down in Jarnail Singh (2018) since SC’s and ST’s are “indubitably” backward as per Indra Sawhney. Adequacy of Representation – Who is to determine? Indra Sawhney in categoric terms held that since Article 16(4) used the words “in the opinion of the State”, the requirement of adequate representation was a matter “within the subjective satisfaction of the State”. The State could form that opinion on the basis of material “it has in its possession already or it may gather such material through a Commission/Committee ….”. “All that is required is, there must be some material upon which the opinion is formed. Indeed, in this matter, the Court should show due deference to the opinion of the State, which in the present context means the executive.” The Supreme Court went on to say that the scope and reach of judicial scrutiny in matters within subjective satisfaction of the executive, as laid down Barium Chemicals (1967) would apply for the said purposes as well. The test laid down in Barium Chemicals required that there should exist circumstances which, in the opinion of the Authority, justified the action taken. In Rohtas Singh (1969), Barium Chemicals was explained to mean that the formation of the opinion was subjective but the existence of circumstances relevant to the inference as the sine qua non for action must be demonstrable. It was held that the existence of circumstances in question were open to judicial review, the opinion formed by the Government was not amenable to review by the Courts. The same view was reiterated Rustom Cooper (1970) and thereafter again in Bhikhubhai (2008) and has continued to hold the field. In spite of the above, the Supreme Court has continued to strike down reservations made by the State on the ground of inadequacy of representation by following the tests laid down in Nagaraj and by examining each issue in detail wherein it has sometimes substituted its own opinion for the opinion of the State. It is in B.K. Pavitra (2019) that the Supreme Court recognized the complementary principles of the executive arm being aware of prevailing conditions and the opinion of the government on adequacy of representation forming a part of the subjective satisfaction of the State. The Origin of the Four-fold Classification In ancient times the classification was not based on “caste” as is presently understood nor was it on the basis of birth. On the contrary, four-fold classification was based on the “Gunas” of a person. Lord Krishna describes three Gunas in the Bhagawad Geeta in Chapter XIV. The “Sattwa Guna” denotes purity, luminosity, selflessness; the “Rajas Guna” denotes passion, activity and attachment to action and the fruits of action; the “Tamas Guna” is borne of ignorance, lethargy, selfishness and delusion. Lord Krishna went on to say the following : If the embodied one meets with death when SATTWA is predominant, then he attains to the spotless worlds of the “Knowers of the Highest”. Meeting death in RAJAS, he is born among those attached to action; and dying in TAMAS, he is born in the womb of the senseless. 17. Knowledge arises from SATTWA, greed from RAJAS, heedlessness, delusion and also ignorance arise from TAMAS. (Translation from the commentary of the Bhagawad Geeta by Swami Chinmayanandaji) Based on the above Gunas, a four-fold classification has been made in the Geeta. So, the Brahmanas are those with a major portion of Sattwa, a little Rajas and with minimum Tamas; the Kshatriyas have mostly Rajas, some Sattwa and a bit of Tamas; the Vaishyas have mostly Rajas, then Tamas and hardly any Sattwa; and the Shudras have mostly Tamas, a little Rajas and with virtually no Sattwa. The Brahmana, who was in a state of Sattwa, could control his sense organs and had mastery over his mind and could in meditation dwell on the Infinite. The grant of the Brahmana status on the basis of birth is unknown to the scriptural teachings of Lord Krishna. The caste system established on the basis of birth is a distortion which is deliberately practiced by the Brahmanas in a self-serving manner. The Kshatriyas, in whom the dominant quality was Rajas, would be attached to his action and would engage in new endeavours to gain more and more prowess and splendour. But, his Rajas Guna was coloured by some Sattwik qualities because of which he would also be generous and would have other noble qualities of benefitting other people. The Vaishyas would have a domination of the Rajas quality, which would be supplemented by the nature of Tamas. So the Vaishya would be engaged in action, but would not be having the nobility of the Kshatriyas. He would be greedy on account of the Tamas Guna. The Shudras were those who were of the lowest category since they had a domination of Tamas and were the kind of persons who would be lazy or those remaining in a state of intoxication. The lower categories could move up by increasing the Sattwa Guna and by reducing the Tamas Guna and vice versa. Thus, the same person could fall in different classifications at different times, depending on his inner disposition. A perfectly valid classification, having a spiritual basis was distorted by those who claimed to be Brahmanas and who continued the distortion by granting the “caste” on the basis of birth. A so-called Brahmana by birth, whose predominant trait was, in fact, Tamas, would ruin the temple where he sits as a priest. Similarly, a so-called Shudra (on the basis of birth), who was, in fact, endowed with Sattwik qualities would raise even ordinary menial jobs to a high spiritual level. This spiritual four-fold classification has been denigrated by various self-serving expositions resulting in the convoluted system that is in vogue today. Conclusion While it is true that various benefits have been granted to the backward classes for many decades since independence, it is equally true that their condition continues to remain pitiable. Along with other steps, one can perhaps take guidance from the scriptures. Lord Ram granted the boon of Bhakti to the khewat who met him on the banks of the Holy Ganges. The same grace was showered on the backward tribal Nishad Chief who accompanied Lord Rama in the forest. Even when Bharatji embraced the Nishad Chief, Tulsidasji records in Shri Ramcharitamanas that he felt as if he had embraced Lakshmana and could not control the love in his heart. (Manahu Lakhana San Bheta Bhaee, Premu Na Hridaya Samai) The examples set out in these scriptural texts are required to be given effect to if the injustice meted out to these classes is to be permanently eradicated. Love, compassion and enfoldment can do wonders. Sir Martin Luther King had said: “Darkness cannot drive out darkness: only light can do that. Hate cannot drive out hate: only love can do that.” Till then a SC will remain a SC. No matter what position he occupies.Views Are Personal Only. Next Storylast_img read more