An articulated endoskeleton that is calcified is a unifying innovation of the vertebrates, however the molecular basis of the structural divergence between terrestrial and aquatic vertebrates, such as teleost fish, has not been determined. In the present study long-read next generation sequencing (NGS, Roche 454 platform) was used to characterise acellular perichondral bone (vertebrae) and chondroid bone (gill arch) in the gilthead sea bream (Sparus auratus). A total of 15.97Mb and 14.53 Mb were produced, respectively from vertebrae and gill arch cDNA libraries and yielded 32,374 and 28,371 contigs (consensus sequences) respectively. 10,455 contigs from vertebrae and 10,625 contigs from gill arches were annotated with Gene Ontology terms. Comparative analysis of the global transcriptome revealed 4249 unique transcripts in vertebrae, 4201 unique transcripts in the gill arches and 3700 common transcripts. Several core gene networks were conserved between the gilthead sea bream and mammalian skeleton. Transcripts for putative endocrine factors were identified in acellular gilthead sea bream bone suggesting that in common with mammalian bone it can act as an endocrine tissue. The acellular bone of the vertebra, in contrast to current opinion based on histological analysis, was responsive to a short fast and significant (p<0.05) down-regulation of several transcripts identified by NGS, osteonectin, osteocalcin, cathepsin K and IGFI occurred. In gill arches fasting caused a significant (p<0.05) down-regulation of osteocalcin and up-regulation of MMP9.
The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) recently honored members of theVermont Public Television staff with national awards for their localfundraising efforts in the 2003 fiscal year. Besides recognizingfundraising success, the awards cite innovation and best practices. VPT’svice president for marketing and development, Lee Ann Lee, and her staffwere recognized for overall development. Sharing the honor were PeterShea, Paul Ugalde, Scott Schultz, David Donegan, Jeffrey Nelson, BrennanNeill, France Hilt, Trish Sweeney and Jeff Cory.David Donegan, pledge/events coordinator, and Kelly Luoma, vice presidentfor programming, headed a project to stage British comedy teas around theviewing area that earned VPT the PBS Development Award for cultivation andstewardship.Peter Shea, director, corporate and foundation support, won a corporateand foundation support award for his efforts in securing support forprograms.Trish Sweeney, auction coordinator, earned a certificate of achievementfor her work on the annual Travel & Leisure Auction.Vermont’s statewide public television network must raise about 57 percentof its operating income, more than $3 million, each year from localcontributions to support its programming and services.Lee Ann Lee said, “These are difficult times for non-profit organizations,but we work hard as a team to broaden VPT’s support base, while keepingour cost ratios within industry standards. We’re encouraged by the manygenerous individuals and businesses who support our work of making ourcommunities stronger.”