Researcher Sidney K. Pierce said the super green sea slug, Elysia chlorotica, which lives in waters on the east coast of the USA and Canada, is known to steal genes and photosynthesizing organelles called chloroplasts from its favorite intertidal algae species, Vaucheria litorea, but it now seems it has developed an entire chemical pathway to manufacture the green pigment “chlorophyll a” itself.Chlorophyll is the pigment that captures energy from sunlight in photosynthesis. Pierce and his team used radioactive tracing techniques to determine the slugs were manufacturing the chlorophyll themselves and it did not originate in the algae they ate. A number of animals (such as corals) host microbes and algae and benefit from their photosynthesis, but in most of these associations the cells remain whole. In Elysia chlorotica, in contrast, the cells are broken down and chloroplasts are extracted and held inside the slug’s own cells, where they remain active for the slug’s lifetime of almost a year. Researchers have shown that once a young slug has eaten a meal of Vaucheria algae it never has to eat again as long as it has access to light and supplies of chlorophyll and other chemicals used in photosynthesis.In 2007 scientists, including Pierce and his team, found genes related to photosynthesis in the slugs, and these genes, apparently originally from the algae, were even found in unhatched slugs that had never eaten algae. In the latest research Pierce found more algal genes, and some of them were for enzymes required for the chemical process manufacturing chlorophyll. Pierce and his team studied slugs that had not eaten anything for at least five months and had stopped eliminating waste digestive products. They contained chloroplasts taken from the algae, but Pierce said that any other part of the algae should have long ago been digested. They gave the slug an amino acid labeled with radioactive carbon and found that the radioactive carbon turned up in the chlorophyll a molecule after the slugs had been sunbathing, but not if they had been in the dark.The findings were reported at the annual meeting of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology in Seattle, Washington on 7 January and will be published in the journal Symbiosis. Solar-powered sea-slugs live like plants, prof says Explore further
This hands-on workshop will give you the tools to authentically connect with an increasingly skeptical online audience. 2 min read Enroll Now for Free May 27, 2014 Free Workshop | August 28: Get Better Engagement and Build Trust With Customers Now Kids are easily the most tech savvy among us — “digital natives” in the truest sense of the admittedly tired phrase — which is why seeing them confronted with old tech is bound to produce some entertaining results.YouTubers Benny and Rafi Fine, known as The Fine Brothers, showed the cast of their “Kids React” series a 70s-era Apple computer to varying responses – many were confused, particularly about the size and the lack of a mouse, but others were delighted. “It looks cool, I like pressing buttons,” said Krischelle, 9.The computer required several steps to turn on (as well as hitting the reset button to have it be of any use) and the lack of features turned out to be a bit rage-inducing. “Apps, games, websites. Everything. But this thing right here, has nothing!” said Brooke-Monae, 8.Related: Kids See a Walkman for Maybe the First Time EverUpon the reveal that it wasn’t equipped for the internet — a request for Google returned an answer of “syntax error,” for Kacey, 9 — Dylan, 12, astutely pointed out, “Pretty sure Timothy Berners-Lee didn’t create it yet.” Jayka, 11, asked “How do you look up homework?” When offered the library as a solution, she exclaimed “who wants to do that?”But a computer game, that great equalizer, came to the rescue — but in the form of a floppy disk. The graphics weren’t too advanced, but Sydney, 6, thought it was an improvement on some of the games in the current Apple app store. “At least it’s better Flappy Bird!”Check out the entire video below.
May 9, 2019 5 min read Hooray! It’s that time of year! Birds are chirping, flowers are blooming, sunshine is streaming; and hordes of people are taking the opportunity to clear out their cluttered closets and drawers, reorganize their stuff and give their homes a deep clean.Related: How to Make Your Small Business Website Really, Really EffectiveBut, did you know that your website needs a spring cleaning, too?Of course, you can’t physically dust off your website content to make it look shiny and new. But, nonetheless, you do need to give your website content the proverbial spring cleaning it deserves — with a content audit.Conducting a content audit can provide you actionable insights into what type of content is performing the best with your audience, improve your content’s return on investment (ROI) and improve your content-marketing strategy for the future. Plus, cleaning and organizing is good for you. According to a study reported by Psychology Today, people with clean houses are healthier than those with messy one. The same could be said for people with clean websites.So, to give your website a refresh, follow these steps outlining how to “spring clean” your website, using content auditing.Set clear goals.Before diving into your content audit, first set clear goals. Setting goals for your content audit will help you better determine which content is working well, what needs improving and updating and what needs to be retired. By keeping the goals of your content audit in mind, you’ll find it easier to get the big picture on your goals overall. For instance, in terms of your content audit, do you want to:Improve your SEO results?Increase audience engagement?Improve conversion rates?Depending on your goals, you can consider different criteria for each page or post. For instance, to improve SEO results, you’ll look over and optimize internal linking. To increase audience engagement, you’ll determine what topics your audience is most interested in. And, to improve conversion rates, you’ll identify the most efficient content for each stage of the buyer’s journey.Related: How to Create a Site Structure That Will Enhance SEOCreate a content inventory.Next, you’ll want to create an inventory of all your content. So, compile a list of all your URLs and put them in a spreadsheet. If your site is small, you can easily do this manually.But, if you have a ton of content on your website, this task might be more time-consuming, so consider delegating it to another employee in your company, or hire a freelancer to complete the task or use a crawling tool like Screaming Frog, which is free to use for up to 500 URLs. In the spreadsheet you create, list all the URLS in columns along with other details such as:Title of the contentType of content (blog post, landing page, product description)Date of publication or last modificationAuthor (if you have multiple authors on your site)Stage of the buyer’s journey (awareness, consideration, decision)Number of wordsMetadata (title, description)Metrics such as number of page visits, time spent on page, conversion rate, backlinks, shares, ranking for the main keywords, and so on.Then consult your analytics tool to discover all of the key metrics you need to know. As you build this list of your content inventory, you’ll be able to easily identify which content is underperforming.Assess your content and take action.Once you’ve taken inventory of all your content in an organized spreadsheet, it’s time to assess your content and take action. In this step, you’ll identify what content is performing well for you, what you need to change/update, what you can merge and what you can get rid of.Again, go back to the goals you set for your content audit. If your main goal is to improve conversions, you’ll mainly want to focus on metrics such as conversion rate and time spent on the page as well as what stage of the buyer’s journey your content is for.For instance, when filling out your spreadsheet you may notice that you have lots of content for the decision stage of the buyer’s journey and not enough for the consideration or awareness stages. You can then go ahead and start planning more content to guide users through each stage of the buyer’s journey or edit your existing content as needed.To make the process of assessing your content easier, create another column in your inventory spreadsheet to grade your content. You can use A,B,C,D grading or give your content a score from 1 to 5. If the content is performing well across all metrics, you can give it a top score. Other content that’s not performing as well can then be updated and tweaked to meet your goals.Related: 27 Ways to Increase Traffic to Your WebsiteOver to you”Spring cleaning” has never been more enjoyable, right? By cleaning your website using content auditing, you can enjoy increased organic traffic, a rise in audience engagement and a big boost in conversions. Marie Kondo’s got nothing on you and your spring cleaning skills! Attend this free webinar and learn how you can maximize efficiency while getting the most critical things done right. Free Webinar | Sept 5: Tips and Tools for Making Progress Toward Important Goals Opinions expressed by Entrepreneur contributors are their own. Register Now »